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Full text of "Normative study of the acquisition of consonant sounds in Portuguese"

A NORMATIVE STUDY OF THE ACQUISITION 
OF CONSONANT SOUNDS IN PORTUGUESE 






BY 
CELIA R. SALVIANO SANTINI 



A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL 

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT 

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

1995 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES 



Copyright 1995 

by 

Celia R. Salviano Santini 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

First and above all, I would like to thank my loving God who provided for 
all of the following persons who made this dissertation possible. Without His help 
and guidance, this work would not have been possible. 

The people who contributed to the completion of this work are many. This 
has been an intense experience and the involvement of so many family and 
friends was necessary to keep me going. There is no way that I can express my 
feelings of gratitude to everyone, but some credit, at least, should be given. 

First, I would like to express my deepest and most sincere gratitude to Dr. 
Alice Tanner Dyson, my advisor, not only for her invaluable assistance during this 
study, but for her time and support throughout my doctoral program. Dr. Dyson's 
patient guidance through all the stages of this study helped me learn that 
everything is possible if we take one problem at a time. Her constant uplifting 
humor, her trust and confidence, made me feel special and capable. Indeed, the 
knowledge I obtained from Dr. Dyson about research as well as computer use is 
beyond measure. We can say now that we did beat the machine. 

I also would like to express my warmest thanks to the members of my 
committee, Dr. Linda Lombardino, Dr. Charles Perrone, Dr. Howard Rothman, 
and Dr. Christine Sapienza. Their support and input were invaluable. 



in 



I owe special thanks to my husband for his love and support that kept me 
going; without his help and encouragement none of this would have been possible. 
I would also like to thank my son Lucas for making me so happy, every day. I 
thank my mom and my dad, for the constant love and support, and especially my 
mom who took care of my baby while I finished writing this paper. I would like to 
thank my entire family — my brothers, my sisters-in-law, and my in-laws — for their 
encouraging phone calls, their cheering, their prayers, and their understanding of 
my absence. 

I appreciate the financial support provided by my country through CNPq 
(Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico-Brazil). Their 
support during those last four years was sharp, valuable, and friendly. 

The Department of Communication Processes and Disorders has offered 
me friendship, support, and encouragement at every step of my studies. I offer 
special thanks to all of these terrific people. I would like to thank my dear friend 
Jennifer Dutka for her enormous help teaching me how to be a student, a 
researcher, and a mother. I would also like to thank my friend Mousa Al 
Amayreh for showing me the way and inspiring this study. My thanks go to Jizela, 
who helped me enter the data, and to Monica who was a great tutor. The 
Graduate School editorial staff must also be thanked for their sharp eyes and 
valuable assistance in editing. 



iv 



I greatly appreciate the support and advice of Drs. Yavas and Lamprecht. 
My calls and questions to them were always handled with consideration and 

information. 

Last, but not least, my warmest thanks and appreciation go to the 192 
children who participated in the study and especially to Anilu and Tereza, the two 
speech therapist who spent hours with me helping to test the children. 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii 

LIST OF TABLES ix 

LIST OF FIGURES x 

KEY TO SYMBOLS xiv 

ABSTRACT xv 

CHAPTERS 

1 INTRODUCTION 1 

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 4 

Methodology of Studies of Sound Acquisition 4 

Normative Research 4 

Purposes of Normative Studies 5 

Subject Selection and Sample Size 7 

Word Selection and Elicitation Methods 14 

Methods of Analysis and Presentation of Norms 18 

Phonological Characteristics of Portuguese 22 

Vowels 22 

Consonants 27 

Syllables Type and Composition 32 

Studies of Acquisition of Portuguese 36 

Statement of the Problem 42 

The Need for This Research 42 

Purpose of Study 44 



VI 



METHODOLOGY 45 

Subjects 45 

The Assessment Instrument 47 

Stimuli 47 

Procedure 52 

Duration of the Exam 53 

Test Environment 53 

Examiners 53 

Tape Recording Equipment and Procedure 54 

Transcription 54 

Data Entry and Tabulation 55 

Validity of the Test 55 

Presentation of the Data 56 

RESULTS 57 

Question 1. What percentage of each consonant was produced 

correctly by children at each age level? 57 

SIWI, Syllable-Initial, Word-Initial 59 

SIWW, Syllable- Initial, Within- Word 59 

Comparison of Percentages of Correct Production by 

Position 78 

Clusters 105 

Comparison of Percentages of Correct Production of 

Boys and Girls 107 

Question 2. What is the age of "customary production" for each 

sound? 107 

Question 3. What is the age of "acquisition" for each sound? . 107 

Question 4. What is the age of "mastery" for each sound? . . . 107 

/b/-/p/ 109 

/d/-/t/ 109 

/g/-/k/ 1 

/m/-/n/-/n7 1 

NI-IV 1 

ItHsl 1 

Ill-Ill 1 

/t//-/d 5 / 1 

/L/-/l/-/r/-/R/ 112 

Reliability 112 



vn 



5 DISCUSSION 113 

Comparison with Other Studies 113 

Percentages of Correct Production 113 

Customary and Mastery Ages 116 

Strengths, Weaknesses, and Limitations 116 

Suggestions for Further Research 120 

Conclusions 120 

APPENDICES 

A STIMULUS PICTURES 122 

B TRANSCRIPTION SHEET 127 

REFERENCES 132 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 136 



vni 









LIST OF TABLES 
Table page 

2-1 Summary of purposes of major studies reviewed 6 

2-2 Articulatory classification of Porguguese vowels 23 

2-3 Examples of Portuguese diphthongs and triphthongs 25 

2-4 Nasals vowels in Portuguese 26 

2-5 Syllabic types of Portuguese 33 

2-6 Distribution of Portuguese consonants 34 

2-7 Examples of Portuguese clusters 35 

2-8 Consonant sequences in Portuguese 37 

3-1 Distribution of subjects' age and gender in each group 46 

3-2 List of words targeted by each picture 48 

3-3 Distribution of consonants by position 49 

4-1 Percentage of each consonant produced correctly in the SIWI 

position in each group 60 

4-2 Percentage of each consonant produced correctly in the 

SIWW position in each group 69 

4-3 Distribution of consonants by position 79 



IX 















LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure page 

2-1 Places and manners of articulation of Portuguese consonants 

29 

4-1 Overall percentage of consonants produced correctly by each 

group 58 

4-2 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 2:0 61 

4-3 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 2:6 62 

4-4 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 3:0 63 

4-5 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 3:6 64 

4-6 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 4:0 65 

4-7 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 4:6 66 

4-8 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 5:0 67 

4-9 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI 

position for Group 6:0 68 

4-10 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SI WW 

position for Group 2:0 70 

4-11 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW 

position for Group 2:6 71 



x 






4-12 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW 

position for Group 3:0 72 

4-13 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW 

position for Group 3:6 73 

4-14 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW 

position for Group 4:0 74 

4-15 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW 

position for Group 4:6 75 

4-16 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW 

position for Group 5:0 76 

4-17 Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW 

position for Group 6:0 77 

4-18 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 2:0 81 

4-19 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 2:0 82 

4-20 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 2:0 83 

4-21 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 2:6 84 

4-22 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 2:6 85 

4-23 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 2:6 86 

4-24 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 3:0 87 

4-25 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 3:0 88 

4-26 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 3:0 89 



XI 



4-27 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 3:6 90 

4-28 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 3:6 91 

4-29 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 3:6 92 

4-30 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 4:0 93 

4-31 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 4:0 94 

4-32 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 4:0 95 

4-33 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 4:6 96 

4-34 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 4:6 97 

4-35 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 4:6 98 

4-36 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 5:0 99 

4-37 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 5:0 100 

4-38 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 5:0 101 

4-39 Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW posi- 
tions for Group 6:0 102 

4-40 Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and 

SIWW positions for Group 6:0 103 

4-41 Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI 

and SIWW positions for Group 6:0 104 



xn 



4-42 Percentages of correct production of two types of clusters 

and the /nd/ sequence by each group 106 

4-43 Comparison of accuracy of consonants produced by boys and 

girls in each group 108 

4-44 Customary, mastery, and acquisition ages of each consonant . 110 

5-1 Comparison of customary and mastery ages of Portuguese, 

Arabic, and English stops and nasals 117 

5-2 Comparison of customary and mastery ages of Portuguese, 

Arabic, and English fricatives, affricates, and nasals 118 



xni 



KEY TO SYMBOLS 
Throughout this paper, several symbols have been substituted for Interna- 
tional Phonetic Alphabet (IP A) symbols unavailable either in the text or figure 
fonts. 

IU = I A I, alveo-palatal, lateral liquid, voiced consonant 

I HI = I til, alveo-palatal, nasal, voiced consonant 

/R/ = Ixl, lingua-velar, lateral liquid, voiced consonant 



xiv 



Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School 

of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the 

Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy 

A NORMATIVE STUDY OF THE ACQUISITION 
OF CONSONANT SOUNDS IN PORTUGUESE 

By 

Celia R. Salviano Santini 

December, 1995 

Chair: Alice T Dyson, Ph.D. 

Major Department: Communication Processes and Disorders 

Phonological acquisition is a topic that has fascinated researchers trying to 
solve the puzzle of how children learn to talk. A review of the literature provides 
a large body of information about the acquisition of English phonology. The study 
of Portuguese phonology is a rapidly growing discipline with several studies dating 
from 1992 to the present. Most of these studies have addressed the need to build 
a more theoretical basis to support clinical work with individuals with disorders. 

The purpose of this study was to collect normative data on the acquisition 
of consonant sounds in Portuguese as spoken in Brazil. The data were used to 
answer four questions: (1) What percentage of children at each age level pro- 
duced each consonant correctly? (2) What is the age of "customary production" 
for each sound? (3) What is the age of "acquisition" for each sound? (4) What is 
the age of "mastery" for each sound? 

xv 



An existing articulation test of Portuguese was used to collect samples 
from 192 normally developing children between the ages of 2:0 and 6:11. The 
children represented eight age groups with 12 boys and 12 girls in each group. 
The children's responses were tape recorded and transcribed by two listeners for 
later analysis. 

The consonants were considered separately in all positions in which they 
occurred. The percentages of accuracy of each consonant sound were analyzed 
and indicated a rapid development between 2:0 and 2:6 with continued but slower 
development in older groups. No significant differences were found between the 
performances of girls and boys. The ages of acquisition were compared to English 
and Arabic. Customary production tended to come later in Portuguese but 
mastery occurred earlier than in the other two languages. The voiceless conso- 
nants were produced more accurately than their voiced cognates. In the younger 
groups the word initial consonants were less accurate than the same consonants 
within words. Unlike the findings of other languages, the liquids were learned 
before the fricatives. Other patterns of acquisition found were similar to those 
reported in other languages. 



xvi 



CHAPTER 1 
INTRODUCTION 



The acquisition of the phonology of languages has been studied for several 
purposes. Much of this research has been undertaken to add to the theoretical 
point of view of the researcher. However, such studies can also have practical 
purposes. Precise information on the ages of acquisition of sounds and sound 
sequences is needed for formulating articulation test instruments, for making 
diagnostic decisions about the status of the speech of individual children, and for 
planning remediation when problems are found. Since 1960, assessment batteries 
for articulation have included sound inventories — articulation tests — usually 
elicited by picture naming. Although such tests are useful to the speech-language 
pathologist, they have been widely criticized in the literature (Ingram, 1989; Irwin 
& Wong, 1983; Olmsted, 1971; Stoel-Gammon & Dunn, 1985). 

Frequent criticisms have focused on the lack of validity of testing speech by 
naming pictures. Problems with picture naming include the choice of words, the 
type of words, and the testing of only one sound in the word. The selection, 
screening, and numbers of subjects tested have also been criticized by those who 
would like to generalize data to other groups. Based on some of these criticisms, 
recent researchers have made attempts to remedy the problems by conducting 



2 
further normative studies and by developing newer forms of the tests. Some of the 
changes introduced by these researchers were minor, such as including more 
items, using vocabulary more appropriate to the subjects tested, controlling word 
structure and familiarity, targeting more than one sound per word, and using 
more realistic pictures (Al Amayreh, 1994; Ingram, Christensen, Veach, & 
Webster, 1980; Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, & Bird, 1990; Yavas, 1988). In 
addition, major changes have been made. These included a shift toward more 
phonemic detail in scoring instead of correct/incorrect, a shift from sound by 
sound analysis to pattern analysis, the inclusion of normative data that allow 
clinicians to compare a child's performance at a particular age to norms from the 
instrument (Khan & Lewis, 1986; Lamprecht, 1993; Prather, Hedrick, & Kern, 
1975; Preisser, Hodson, & Paden, 1988; Sander, 1972; Smit et al., (1990). 

Most of the commonly reported studies of phonological acquisition have 
been conducted in English. However, it is clear that the phonologies of languages 
different from English may develop in different ways and at different rates 
(Wertzner, 1992). The language of interest in this study was Portuguese. 
Portuguese is a Romance language spoken in Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, 
Angola, and parts of Africa and Asia. In Brazil alone, approximately 160 million 
people speak this language. The practice of speech-language pathology is well 
developed in Brazil, but the number of normative studies of the sound system are 
few. Clearly, the development of Portuguese phonology is of interest to a great 
many people. 



3 
In the following chapter some of the most important methodological issues 

in the collection and analysis of phonological acquisition data will be discussed, 

especially as these have been addressed by researchers in the United States. An 

overview of the phonological system of Portuguese will be presented and 

compared briefly to English. Finally, the few available reports on phonological 

acquisition of Portuguese as spoken in Brazil will be presented. 

The purpose of this study was to collect further normative data on the 

acquisition of Portuguese. In this study an attempt was made to remedy some of 

the problems found by researchers in other normative studies. 






CHAPTER 2 
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 

Methodology of Studies of Sound Acquisition 

The empirical problems in normative research are many. Some of those 

problems have been addressed by researchers in terms of how they apply to the 

study of sound acquisition (Ingram, Christensen, Veach, & Webster, 1980; Irwin 

& Wong, 1983; Morrison & Shriberg, 1992; Smit, 1986). In this review the focus 

will be on subject selection and sample size, word selection and elicitation 

methods, and methods of analysis and presentation of norms. Those aspects will 

be discussed in the context of several studies of English and the limited studies 

that have been reported on Portuguese. 

Normative Research 

Normative research was defined by Hegde (1987) as the type of research in 

which the distribution of selected dependent variables across age groups is 

observed and recorded. A study of the acquisition of sounds could report, for 

example, the number of phonemes correctly produced (dependent variable) by 2-, 

3-, and 4-year-old children from a particular population. According to Hegde, the 

major purpose of normative research is to arrive at norms that are the averaged 

performance levels of presumably typical reference groups. 



5 
For clinical disciplines, such as speech-language pathology, developmental 

norms are extremely important because they tell us how children's speech 

behaviors change as they grow older. This information helps in making clinical 

judgments as to whether a given child's behavior is within the expected age range 

or not. However, the literature review shows that there has been a variety of 

purposes for conducting studies of phonological acquisition, and the studies have 

differed somewhat to accommodate their purposes. Because of such differences in 

methodology, they are not always comparable to each other and are not of equal 

value for the speech-language pathologist. 

Purposes of Normative Studies 

A summary of some purposes of selected studies can be found on Table 2- 

1. It should be noted that this table includes studies of both English, summarized 

by Al Amayreh (1994), and of Portuguese. In this paper, emphasis will be given to 

studies of the type included under Purposes 1, 2, 4, 6. Smit (1986) reviewed seven 

of the major normative studies of English (Arlt & Goodman, 1976; Irwin & 

Wong, 1983; Olmsted, 1971; Poole, 1934; Prather, Hedrick, & Kern, 1975; 

Templin, 1957; Wellman, Case, Mengert, & Bradbury, 1931), looking especially at 

their methodologies as these might affect the ages of acquisition reported. She 

concluded that "the major differences among the elicited speech investigations 

occur in the area of subject selection, method of obtaining the speech sample, and 

analysis procedures" (p. 177). Further discussion regarding the differences in 

methodology between the studies will be addressed in sections below. 



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7 
Subject Selection and Sample Size 

Normative research has typically used the stimulus and response sampling 
procedure to establish the statistically averaged response patterns across age 
groups. Theoretically, norms are established on randomly selected subjects who 
are representative of the population. Several researchers have emphasized that 
certain variables must be controlled in order for the results of normative studies 
to have value (Ingram et al., 1980; Smit et al., 1990). Specifically, the sample must 
be representative if the conclusions are to be extended to all children in the 
population. 
Subject characteristics 

In their selection of subjects, most researchers make an effort to ensure 
that the sample reflects the socioeconomic distribution of the population as a 
whole. Also, audiometric screening and parental report are typically used to 
exclude children with hearing losses or delayed language development. However, 
different criteria for subject selection have been used depending upon each 
researcher's belief about factors important to his or her purpose. For example, 
Smit et al. (1990) were only concerned with studying children from a particular 
region of the United States — Kansas and Nebraska; Stoel-Gammon (1985) was 
looking at a particular age group, children under the age of 2. 

Khan and Lewis (1986) pointed out the need for subjects in different age 
groups to have similar backgrounds (gender, ethnic, and geographical). Their 
subjects were also screened to exclude physical abnormalities and to guarantee 



o 
normal function of the speech mechanism. They did not express a particular 
concern about screening or controlling the socioeconomic status. Templin (1957), 
however, was much more concerned with socioeconomic level. She weighted her 
sample heavily on the lower end of the socioeconomic status scale (70% lower, 
30% upper, based on father's occupation) and included only urban children, all 
monolingual. Although all of her subjects were from Iowa, she stated that she 
tried to represent the general population of the United States in her subject 
group in the distribution of socioeconomic status. Templin (1957) did not screen 
hearing or language development even though there are indications that even a 
mild problem in either area might affect the age of sound learning (Ingram, 
1989). 

Prather et al. (1975) also attempted to mirror the socioeconomic makeup 
of the general population of the United States in their subject sample. They 
selected one-third of each age group from three different classes based on 
education and occupation. Only Caucasian monolingual children were included 
and those with hearing loss or language disorders were excluded. Arlt and 
Goodban (1976), on the other hand, claimed that their subjects represented an 
average socioeconomic population but did not describe how this was determined. 
The majority of their subjects were white with some other races in each subgroup. 
They included only monolingual subjects and screened for normal I.Q., emotional 
problems, and/or hearing problems. 






9 
Both of the two early studies, Welhnan et al. (1931) and Poole (1934) 

observed children from university laboratory schools, making their populations 

very selective. All subjects were from upper socioeconomic status with fathers who 

were graduate students. A very narrow sample of children such as this, all drawn 

from a specific group, is probably not a representative sample from which 

generalizations to larger populations could be made. No other factors were 

reported to have been screened in these two studies to determine subject 

exclusion. 

Olmsted (1971) was the only researcher who specifically included some 
children with parents who spoke English as a second language or non- American 
dialects. However, he observed primarily children of professors and graduate 
students. No control for hearing status or language development was reported. 

A brief review of subject selection procedures in some other studies of 
English found that Irwin and Wong (1983) selected subjects with middle social 
economic status, all Caucasian. They screened for hearing, previous language 
therapy, and dentofacial abnormalities. Stoel-Gammon (1985, 1987) selected 
subjects who were monolingual and screened for hearing, cognitive development, 
and motor development. Preisser, Hodson, and Paden (1988) included subjects 
from middle and lower-middle socioeconomic levels, all monolingual. They 
screened for hearing, "general function," language development, and voice. In the 
most recent study, Smit et al. (1990) stated the population density of their 
subjects' residences and the parental education of their subjects, all of whom were 



10 
monolingual and spoke a "standard Midwestern dialect." The subjects were 

screened for hearing, motor speech problems, and oral-facial abnormalities. 

A study conducted by Silverio, Parlato, Mourao, Altmann, and Chiari 
(1994) looked at the occurrence of Portuguese phonemes produced by preschool 
children of public versus private schools. The researchers controlled the subject 
selection to ensure the same number of males and females in each group. A 
screening was conducted to control for normal language development and normal 
speech mechanism. It should be noted that in Brazil the majority of children who 
enroll in public schools are from the lower social economic layer of the 
population. Other studies looking at the phonological acquisition of Portuguese 
(Hernandorena, 1993; Lamprecht, 1993; Yavas, Hernandorena, & Lamprecht, 
1991) controlled the subject selection in terms of gender, age, and normal 
development. One study of Portuguese phonology (Mota, 1993) looked at a 
specific group. She evaluated the validity of a phonological therapy model 
(Hodson & Paden, 1986); therefore, only children with developmental 
phonological disorders were selected. 
Age range 

Normative research is typically concerned with the distribution of behaviors 
across age groups. The age groups are usually selected according to the purposes 
of the study (e.g., to include very young children to extend existing age norms). 
The age ranges in the studies reviewed have generally fallen between 2 and 8 
years. Also, studies have varied in the earliest age tested and in the intervals 



11 

between and within age groups. Some studies started at a very young age, from 12 
to 18 months or even younger (e.g., Ingram et al., 1980; Irwin & Wong, 1983; 
Preisser et al., 1988; Stoel-Gammon, 1985, 1987; Vihman & Greenlee, 1987; 
Olmsted, 1971). Another group of studies started at 2 years or at 2:6 (Khan and 
Lewis, 1986; Poole, 1934; Prather et al., 1975; Wellman et al., 1931). Arlt and 
Goodban (1976), Smit et al. (1990), and Templin (1957) started at 3 years of age. 
The age range of subjects is important when considering the usefulness of 
the data. For example, inclusion of young children allows more opportunities to 
see if sounds were acquired earlier than had been previously reported. 
Unfortunately, in studies of very young children, it was often reported that a large 
number of young children did not respond to all stimuli. In addition, studies that 
included only very young children usually reported a smaller sample size and were 
typically undertaken for special purposes. For example, Preisser et al. (1988) 
studied a particular age group to identify phonological processes, and Stoel- 
Gammon (1985, 1987) studied a particular age group to extend previous norms 
into younger age groups. Arlt and Goodban (1976), who started at age 2:6, and 
Poole (1934), who started at age 3, did not report on the completeness of their 
data (Smit, 1986). The frequently used norms collected by Templin (1957) started 
at age 3. All sounds that had already been acquired by her subjects before that 
age were simply reported as being acquired at 3 years. Such a presentation of 
data can be misleading for clinical diagnosis. 



12 
In cross-sectional research such as most of the phonological acquisition 

studies, a decision must be made about the age interval within groups. Most of 

the studies reviewed used 6-month or 1-year intervals, often with smaller intervals 

for younger children, assuming that more rapid changes would occur in these 

groups. For example, Templin (1957) allowed 6-month groups up to age 5 and 1- 

year groups between 6 and 8 years. Narrower age groups were used by Prather et 

al. (1975), four age groups per year (e.g., 24, 28, 32, 36 months) with each subject 

falling within one month before or after the mid-point (e.g, 23-25, 31-33, etc.) 

The studies of Portuguese phonology reviewed presented age ranges 
similar to the ones used by studies of English. Hernandorena (1993) studied 
children as young as 2 and up to 4:3. The children were divided into 14 groups 
with a 2-month age range in each group. Yavas et al. (1991) studied children from 
2:4 to 4:4 years of age. Silverio et al. (1994) studied preschool children from 2:6 
to 5:6 years of age divided into three groups with a window of one year each. 
Lamprecht (1993) studied the phonological acquisition of Portuguese speaking 
children between age 2:9 to 5:5. 
Sample size 

The sample size is a very important consideration in any research study. In 
normative research, decisions about the number of subjects to study represent a 
real challenge. Hegde (1987) reminds us that any population is heterogeneous. 
When a large number of persons are studied, there is much variability. Therefore, 
a good sample must be heterogeneous, but the more heterogeneous the sample, 



13 
the more variable the performance. Unfortunately, the more variable the 

performance, the less meaningful are averaged data (the norms). "In other words, 

even when an investigator achieves a representative random sample, the resulting 

norms will be highly variable, a contradiction of terms" (Hedge, 1994, p. 85). 

The great variability in sample sizes included in the normative studies 
reviewed can, in most cases, be attributed to differences in the purposes of the 
studies. Templin (1957), Khan and Lewis (1986), and Smit et al. (1990) used very 
large samples (480, 852, and 997, respectively) to provide normative data on 
speech sound acquisition. These samples have been divided almost evenly 
between boys and girls. 

Two studies that were intended primarily to replicate previous normative 
studies used smaller samples for this purpose; Arlt and Goodman (1976) included 
240 subjects, and Prather et al. (1975) included 147 subjects. Both Olmsted (1971) 
and Irwin and Wong (1983) included 100 subjects in their studies, which 
attempted to show the use of different elicitation procedures to provide data on 
speech sound and distinctive feature acquisition. Al Amayreh (1994) included 180 
subjects, starting with children as young as 2:4 in his normative study of Arabic. 
Preisser et al. (1988), Stoel-Gammon (1985, 1987), and Vihman and Greenlee 
(1987), observed much smaller samples of children to study development in very 
young children with more detail than is possible in the large sample studies. 

Mota (1993) studied a small sample of three children because she was 
looking at the effects of a detailed phonological process therapy. Lamprecht 



14 
(1993) also reported a fairly small sample of 12 children in her longitudinal study 

of acquisition of Portuguese phonology. Wertzner (1992) looked at 56 children 

and Yavas (1988) included 72 children in their studies of the phonological 

development of Portuguese speakers. Hernandorena (1993) studied a larger 

sample of 134 Portuguese speaking children when looking at the stages of 

phonological acquisition. 

Word Selection and Elicitation Methods 

Elicitation methods 

The method used for eliciting the speech sample from the subjects in 
normative research has varied somewhat and is usually determined by the purpose 
of the study. Elicitation methods can be classified under two major categories: 
single words and conversational samples. Single words can be collected either in 
spontaneously evoked samples (picture naming, reading, and sentence 
completion) or in imitative samples (direct imitation or with some intervening 
time delay or words between the model and the imitation). 

To obtain single-word samples, children typically are asked to name a 
picture representing a target word. If the child does not produce the word 
spontaneously, Bernthal and Bankson (1993) have suggested that a response 
should be elicited by giving some prompts first without giving a model. If the 
child still does not produce the word spontaneously, a delayed imitation can be 
used whereby the examiner names the picture and then says something to 
diminish the influence of the spoken cue; the last recourse is to use direct 



15 
imitation. It is important that words elicited by different methods should be 

analyzed separately if possible instead of combining all responses as if they were 

elicited in the same way. 

The majority of studies have used single words as a method for collecting 
data using pictures or objects. However, different procedures have sometimes 
been used when no spontaneous response was obtained. A brief review of some 
frequently reported studies indicated that Wellman et al. (1931) used spontaneous 
picture naming; Poole (1934), Preisser et al. (1988), Khan and Lewis (1986), and 
Smit et al. (1990) used spontaneous naming of pictures, objects, actions, or 
questions with delayed imitation, or imitation, if needed; Templin (1957) used 
either spontaneous or imitated picture naming; Arlt and Goodban (1976) used 
imitation throughout. Prather et al. (1975) followed a sequence of spontaneous, 
cues, forced choice questions, and then imitation, or no response. Ingram et al. 
(1980) used sentence completion, sentence recall, and imitation. 

Conversational samples have also been used to collect data about 
articulation and phonological acquisition. Such samples have the advantage of 
using spontaneous connected speech, and the words are used in meaningful and 
real contexts. There are also some disadvantages because this method requires 
more time to obtain and analyze the sample, some sounds may not be represented 
in the sample, and the results cannot be compared to most of the norms available. 

Of the studies reviewed in this paper, Olmsted (1971), Irwin and Wong 
(1983), Stoel-Gammon (1985, 1987), and Vihman and Greenlee (1987) used 



16 

conversational samples. The method of data collection varied. Olmsted (1971) 

used play sessions with the children; Irwin and Wong (1983) used non-structured 
conversation exchanges and tape recorded the sessions; Stoel-Gammon (1985, 
1987) tape recorded interactions with caretakers and children using the same set 
of toys for all subjects; and Vihman and Greenlee (1987) tape recorded and 
videotaped play sessions with mother and family peers and studied the production 
of fricatives and clusters with pictures. 

Spontaneously evoked samples of single words and imitated samples have 
been criticized for several reasons. Critics point out that production of single 
words may differ from the production of the same words by the same children in 
connected speech — a problem of validity (Morrison & Shriberg, 1992); each sound 
is targeted only once in each position and the consistency of production cannot be 
assessed — a problem of reliability; and children's performance may vary based on 
the familiarity and/or the structure of the word — a problem of both reliability and 
validity (Bernthal & Bankson, 1984; Ingram, 1989). Some attempts have been 
made to evaluate these possible differences in results due to the method of 
elicitation (e.g., Ingram et al., 1980; Ingram, 1989; Kenney & Prather, 1984; Stoel- 
Gammon & Dunn, 1985; Templin, 1947), and each study contributed to important 
methodological considerations to be taken into account. However, the conclusions 
of most of these studies indicated that only very small differences will appear in 
the final results and that these differences should not rule out the use of a single- 
word elicitation method if it appears to be the most useful and usable for a 



17 
particular study (Morrison & Shriberg, 1992). The purpose of a study should 

determine the elicitation method used. To emphasize this point, Ingram (1989) 

noted that regardless of the differences in the elicitation and analysis procedures, 

Templin (1957), who used single words, and Olmsted (1971), who used only 

conversation, obtained almost the same results. 

Word selection 

The selection of words used in normative studies has been dependent 
mainly on the inclusion of target sounds needed in the corpus to satisfy the 
purpose of the studies. Most normative studies have been based on samples 
elicited from one single word for each sound in three positions — initial, medial, 
and final. However, Prather et al. (1975) and Smit et al. (1990) tested only two 
positions, initial and final. Arlt and Goodban (1976), Khan and Lewis (1986), and 
Preisser et al. (1988) tested more than one sound per word in an attempt to keep 
the number of words small. Ingram et al. (1980) and Smit et al. (1990) tested 
each sound of interest in each position of interest more than once. 
Sounds tested 

Most normative studies reviewed included the majority of consonant 
sounds of the language. Consonant clusters were included to some extent in most 
studies, but vowels and diphthongs often were not tested. Wellman et al. (1931) 
and Poole (1934) excluded infrequently occurring sounds. Ingram et al. (1980) 
included only a selected group of sounds, because the study had a specific 
purpose in examining these sounds. 



18 
Methods of Analysis and Presentation of Norms 

Criterion for acquisition 

In studies of sound acquisition, a criterion is set to determine "age of 
acquisition" for the group as a whole. The criterion for acquisition is set by the 
level of correctness of the sound specified by the researcher and varies 
considerably from study to study. Precise definition of acceptable responses is 
essential and can affect the results. Ingram criticized Templin (1957) for not 
considering normal variants of phonemes as acceptable in scoring. For example, 
an acceptable variant such as the flapped /t/ was considered to be incorrect. The 
issue of acceptable responses is also very important in languages that have various 
dialects and for normative studies conducted nationwide. 

Poole (1934) set the highest criterion for acquisition, 100% correct 
production in all positions. Wellman et al. (1931) and Templin used correct 
production by 75% of the children in each of three word positions. Ingram et al. 
(1980) criticized the 75% criterion as too strict and suggested 70%. They required 
correct production of 70% of the child's four attempts to produce a sound. 
Prather et al. used correct production in two positions by 75% of the children, 
and the scores were averaged over the two positions. Smit et al. (1990) used 
correct production by 90% of the children in each age group in all positions, 
defending this high criterion as appropriate for state guidelines where their data 
were collected. 



19 
An important aspect in the discussion of defining a level of acquisition was 
brought up by Sander (1972). He argued that the typically used 75% criterion 
represented the "upper age limits rather than average performance" (p. 56). He 
suggested that different indices of speech sound achievement should be 
distinguished, and normative data should report at least two measurements: 
customary age and age of mastery. Mastery is generally preceded by at least three 
stages: (1) the first appearance of the sound, (2) the earliest correct articulation 
of the sound in words, (3) customary production (51% correct production in two 
positions), and finally (4) mastery (90% correct production in three positions). 

Arlt and Goodban (1976), Ingram et al. (1980), Prather et al. (1975), and 
Smit et al. (1990) compared their results with those found in earlier studies. 
Agreements between the findings in the various studies were striking when the 
differences in methodology mentioned above are considered. However, the more 
recent studies have tended to report earlier ages of acquisition (e.g., Arlt & 
Goodban, 1976; Prather et al., 1975; Smit et al., 1990). 
Analysis procedures 

The normative studies reviewed have reported different types of scoring, 
different methods for reporting the data, different statistical analyses employed, 
and different procedures for handling error production. The simplest type of 
scoring in a test of sound production is to use "correct" and "incorrect" or 1 and 0. 
Templin (1957) gave one point for each correct sound out of a total possible of 
176. She then looked at correct percentages for each consonant, for each position, 



20 
and for each type of consonant by manner. Smit et al. (1990) refined this 

procedure by scoring three types of responses: acceptable, not acceptable but with 

marginal differences, and incorrect. 

Another commonly used scoring procedure (Prather et al., 1975) is a four- 
way system based on categories or degrees of correctness, such as Correct, 
Omission, Substitution, and Distortion (e.g., numerical values 0, 1, 2, 3). In other 
studies (Ingram et al., 1980; Preisser et al., 1988; Stoel-Gammon, 1985, 1987; 
Yavas et el., 1991), an IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) symbol was 
assigned to the substituted or distorted sound. This gives more detailed 
information but suits small groups better than large groups. Such detailed 
information cannot be used in most statistical procedures, and the data are 
difficult to report in tables. 
Reporting the data 

A variety of methods for reporting data can be found in normative 
research on sound acquisition. Studies have often included the use of tables of 
norms (e.g., Khan & Lewis, 1986; Silverio et al., 1994; Templin, 1957), figures or 
graphs representing change over time (e.g., Prather et al., 1975; Smit et al. 1990), 
and percentages, percentiles, or standard scores (e.g., Khan & Lewis, 1986; Yavas 
et al., 1991). The data are usually reported separately by age group and by sex 
(e.g., Poole, 1934; Prather et al., 1975; Silverio et al., 1994; Yavas, 1988) and by 
the position of the sound in the word (e.g., Lamprecht, 1993; Templin, 1957; 
Wellman et al., 1931). Some studies also included data by socioeconomic status or 



21 
geographical area (e.g., Khan & Lewis, 1986; Silverio et al., 1994; Smit et al., 

1990), by order of difficulty of sound classes (e.g., Silverio et al., 1994; Templin, 

1957; Wellman et al., 1931; Yavas et al., 1991), and by phonemic environment, 

cluster, or singleton (e.g., Ingram et al., 1980; Smit et al., 1990; Templin, 1957). 

A different method of reporting was used by Dyson (1988), Stoel-Gammon 
(1985, 1987), and Yavas et al. (1991). The phonetic inventories used by the 
children were examined entirely, and the overall percentage of consonants 
produced correctly was reported. In addition, the syllable and word shapes that 
commonly occurred were reported. 

In a number of studies, error productions have been either ignored or 
simply counted. More recent research has emphasized the description of these 
errors by using narrow phonetic transcription. Errors have been described in 
terms of phonological processes, distinctive features, or exact substitutions and 
distortions used by the children (e.g., Irwin & Wong, 1983; Khan & Lewis, 1986; 
Mota, 1993; Prather et al., 1975; Preisser et al., 1988; Smit, 1993; Smit et al., 
1990; Vihman & Greenlee, 1987; Yavas et al., 1991). 

Due to their descriptive nature, most normative studies have not made 
extensive use of statistical procedures. If comparison between and among groups, 
such as differences between genders or socioeconomic status, were needed for the 
study, researchers have typically used a t-test or ANOVA to determine the 
significance of differences. Sometimes percentile ranks and standard scores have 
been computed as well. 



22 
Phonological Characteristics of Portuguese 

This section of the paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of 
Portuguese sounds based on their phonetic features and the way in which those 
sounds operate as a system. When the phonemes are combined in meaningful 
sequences, they interact with one another in systematic ways that can be explained 
by phonological rules. In this paper all references to Portuguese refer to the 
variants of the language spoken in Brazil unless otherwise mentioned. The 
inventory of phonemes used in Portuguese will be described. 

The phonemic inventory of Portuguese is typically described as consisting 
of 19 consonants and 7 vowels. Following is a brief account of these sounds 
extracted from Mascherpe (1970). 
Vowels 

The vowels are classified by using the height and position of the tongue, 
from highest to lowest and from front to back, in conjunction with the shape of 
the lips, from spread or less rounded to very rounded. The vowels used in 
Portuguese can be seen in Table 2-2. 

Portuguese vowels are all [+ syllabic]; that is, they can be the nucleus of a 
syllable. This feature distinguishes them not only from consonants, which are all [- 
syllabic], but also from the glides /w/ and /j/, which appear in diphthongs and 
triphthongs. Vowels can appear either in stressed or unstressed positions. In 
Portuguese, as in other Romance languages, some stress oppositions are 



23 



Table 2-2. Articulatory Classification of Portuguese Vowels. 



Unrounded 






Rounded 



Front 
High IV 

Higher mid /e/ 

Lower mid lei 

Low 



to 



/a/ 



Back 



/W 



lol 



lol 



Examples of Portuguese Vowels 



Initial 

a /a/ patolpaXxxl 
e /e/ pelo/pelul 
e lei pele/peli/ 
i lil mico/mikul 
o /o/ bolo/bohx/ 
0/0/ moto/motu/ 
u /u/ /uva/luva/ 



Medial 

batata /batata/ 

cabelo/kabe\u/ 

boneca /buneka/ 

camisa/kamiza/ 

tijolo/ti-$o\ul 

marolalmarolal 

coluna I cobxnal 



Final 

vaca/vaka/ 

*fomeliomel 

cafelkafel 

bulelbu\il 

*tenholtt\ H 0/ 

mocoto/m ocoto/ 

tatultatul 



* The vowel /e/ is frequently pronounced as /i/ in final position and the vowel /o/ 
is frequently pronounced as /u/ in final position. Only if the /e/ and the lol are 
followed by an /r/ or /s/, the original characteristic sound will be preserved (e.g., 
morrer, comer, calor, mes, pos; /moRer/, /kumer/, /kalor/, /mes/, /pos/). 



24 
neutralized under weak stress, and the vowel inventory consequently is reduced. 
Examples of Portuguese vowels in common words are presented in Table 2-2. 
Diphthongs and triphthongs 

Besides the single vowel nuclei described above, Portuguese has a rich 
variety of complex syllable nuclei, formed by a vowel phone accompanied by one 
or two glides. Phonetically, a glide is produced by a movement of the tongue 
toward or away from the area of articulation of one of the high vowels /i/ or /u/. 
Such a complex nucleus is a rising diphthong (Table 2-3) if the glide is followed 
by a vowel, as in quatro I kwatru/, or a falling diphthong if the glide follows the 
vowel as is pai /paj/. If two glides are involved, the syllable nucleus is a triphthong 
as in the last syllable of Paraguai /para gwaj/. 
Nasalization 

Three types of vowel nasalization occur in Portuguese (Table 2-4). First, 
there are nasalized vowels following nasal consonants in the same syllable, in 
words like doma /doma/ or boina / bojna/. Second, there are nasalized vowels 
also in syllable-final position but adjacent to a nonnasal consonant in the 
following syllable. In such cases, standard orthography represents the nasalized 
nucleus as a vowel followed by a nasal consonant campo /kApu/, canto /kTttu/- 
The third and final case is that of nasalized syllable nuclei in word-final position. 
These are pronounced in a manner similar to the second case; that is, as a 
sequence of a simple or complex nucleus followed by an underlying /n/, as in the 






Table 2-3. Examples of Portuguese diphthongs and triphthongs. 



Rising Diphthongs 



25 



ui /wi/ 


sagui 


iu /ju/ 


miudo 


ue /we/ 


dueto 


ie /je/ 


piedade 


ue /we/ 


cueca 


ie /je/ 


viela 


ua /wa/ 


suave 


ia /ja/ 


quiabo 


uo /wo/ 


quota 


io l]o 1 


idiota 


uo /wo/ 


qiiociente 


io /jo/ 


piolho 


Falling Diphthongs. 


iu /iw/ 


faliu 


ul /uw/ 


pulga 


ei /ej/ 


sei 


ui /ujV 


Rui 


eu /ew/ 


seu 


oi /oj/ 


foi 


ei /«/ 


reis 


ou /ow/ 


sou 


eu /ew/ 


veu 


oi /oj/ 


doi 


ai /aj/ 


pai 


ou /ow/ 


sol 


au /aw/ 


mau 






Triphthongs 


uai /waj/ 


quais 


iai /jaj/ 


fiais 


uei /wej/ 


suei 


iei /jej/ 


guiei 


uou /wow/ 


suou 


iou /jow/ 


guiou 


uiu /wiw/ 


ruiu 







Table 2-4. Nasal vowels in Portuguese. 



26 



Syllabic Nucleus 



Word-final Position 



i 


fino 


/ finu/ 


fim 


m 


e 


pena 


/ p e na/ 


tern 


/te-jV 


a 


lama 


/'lAma/ 


la 


/1a/ 


o 


torn a 


/ toma/ 


som 


/so/ 


u 


fundo 


/ fundu/ 


um 


/u/ 


ai 


amaina 


/a majna/ 


mae 


/mAj/ 


ei 


reino 


/ R ejnu/ 


sem 


/sej/ 


oi 


acoima 


/a kojma/ 


poe 


/poT/ 


ui 


arruina 


/a Ru 7 na/ 


ruim 


/RuT/ 



27 
words fim and ruim. These two words are pronounced as /fin/ and /Ru j"n/, 

respectively, although orthographically they appear to end with a vowel followed 

by /m/. 

Consonants 

The Portuguese consonant system has been variously described as including 
from 16 to 21 distinctive units. This variation is due to competing interpretations 
of the phonological status of /!/, /n/, /r/ (the "double" or "strong" r in words like 
roupa, carro, and honra), and the glides 1)1 and /w/. In this study the figure of 19 
consonant phonemes has been adopted, with IV, /n/, and /r/ considered as 
independent phonological units, and the glides 1)1 and /w/ as positional variants of 
the high vowels /i/ and /u/. 

The description of the consonants takes into account two broad 
parameters: manner and place (or area) of articulation. Each contrast in place 
and manner corresponds to a feature common to a group of consonants. 
Manner of articulation 

Continuant vs. occlusive. Continuant sounds, such /s/, /f/, /R/, are 
articulated without interruption of the flow of air. If the articulators form an 
obstacle to air flow, the consonant is an occlusive, such as /p/, /d/, /k/. 

Nasal vs. oral. Nasal consonants are articulated with the velum lowered, so 
that the air enters the nasal cavity through the nasopharynx. If the velum is 
raised, the sound is oral. 



28 
Sonorant. This feature refers to the possibility of spontaneous voicing 

taking place during the articulation of a sound, and it is shared by vowels, glides, 

and certain consonants such as HI and /r/. 

Lateral. In the articulation of lateral sounds, the air flows around the sides 
of the obstruction in the oral cavity as in /l/ and /L/. 

Vibrant. This feature refers to sounds produced by vibration of the tongue. 
In Portuguese it applies to only two sounds, the flapped /r/ of cara / kara/ and the 
"double r" of carro I kaRu/. In one of its predominant phonetic manifestations, 
the /R/ is produced as an alveolar trill /R/, but variations are common. 

Voicing. Depending on whether or not the vocal folds vibrate, sounds are 
classified as [+ voiced] or [-voiced]. Those in which the vocal folds vibrate are 
[+voiced], e.g., /b/, /d/, /v/. Examples of [-voiced] consonants include /p/, /t/, and 
/if. 
Place of articulation 

As can be seen in Figure 2-1, six places of articulation are relevant in 
Portuguese. Each of these is described briefly below. 

Bilabial. In this manner of articulation the articulators are the lips, which 
act together to block the airflow, as in /b/, /p/, and /m/. 

Labiodental. The upper front teeth form an obstacle to airflow as they 
contact the lower lip, as in /v/ and /if. 

Apicodental. The apex of the tongue touches the inner face of the front 
teeth, as in /t/ and /d/. 






29 



Portuguese 
Consonants 


Bi-labial 


Labio- 
Dental 


Dental/ 
Alveolar 


Alveo- 
Palatal 


Palatal 


Velar 






Stop 
(Plosive) 


P | b 




t d 






k | g 






Nasal 


m 




! n 


1 * 






Fricative 




f j V 


s 1 z 


; | 




W | 






Affricate 








■/I* 






Lateral 






| 1 


1 L * 




(R) | 








Vibrants 






j r 


R 











* fU has been used in figures and text to represent the sound ///, because its symbol is 
not available in this font. 



Figure 2-1. Places and manners of articulation of Portuguese consonants. 






30 
Laminoalveolar. The blade of the tongue is placed against the alveolar 

ridge, as in /]/, /n/, /s/, /z/. 

Palatal. The pre-dorsum of the tongue touches the hard palate, as in /L/. 

Dorsovelar. The dorsum of the tongue touches the velum, blocking the 
airflow, as in /k/ and /g/. 
Phonetic realization of consonants 

Like the vowels, the consonant phonemes are affected, in varying degrees, 
by the phonetic environments in which they occur. The following is a list of some 
important variants of their phonetic realizations. 

1. The /d/ and /t/ are palatalized before /i/ as in dia /d^ja/, and tia /t/ja/. In 
such cases, palatization may be described as resulting from a change in the 
value of the feature [anterior]. 

2. The /s/ becomes voiced in syllable-final position before a voiced consonant 
or vowel, as in as duas /az dwas/, as armas /a zarmas/, and it remains 
voiceless if followed by a voiceless consonant or pause, as in este / est/i/, 
duas /dwas/. The voicing rule applies regularly in syllable-final position, 
generating a voiced fricative /z/, as in desde I dezd^i/, as well as in word 
final position, if the next word begins with a voiced consonant: os dois 
/uz'dojs/. 

3. The /r/ is a voiced apicoalveolar flap, as in caro / karu/. In final position, it 
is maintained only in educated speech and slow, deliberate styles; otherwise 
it is greatly reduced, devoiced, or dropped altogether, as in falar, /fa lar/, 



31 

/fa'laV, /fa la/. If final Ixl is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the 
Ixl, if pronounced, links with that vowel, forming a new syllable— falar 
alguma coisa /fa laraw gumakojza/. Some speakers use either Ixl or Ixl in 
final position: amor /a mor/, /a mox/. In some rural speech, Ixl has a 
palatal retroflex realization very similar to that of English postvocalic 
Ixl — carpa / karpa/. 
5. The /R/, which corresponds to an alveolar trill, has been used above to 
represent the so-called "double r." In fact, this phoneme has several 
different phonetic renderings, namely: 

a. Ixl voiced apicoalvelar trill, 

Ixl voiceless apicoalveolar trill, 

b. I SI voiced alveopalatal fricative, slightly retroflexed, 
fyf voiceless alveopalatal fricative, slightly retroflexed, 

c. /xl voiceless velar fricative, 

d. /R/ voiceless uvular trill, and 

e. [hi voiceless glottal fricative. 

All of these variants are regionally distributed allophones of the same phoneme, 
/R/. However, there is a noticeable amount of overlapping, so they are found in 
free variation in the same dialect or even in the speech of the same individual 
(Azevedo, 1981). The distinctive contrast between Ixl and /R/ is maintained only in 
intervocalic position, as in caro vs. carro / karu/ vs. / kaRu/. Elsewhere, /R/ occurs 






32 
in word initial position or after a consonant (Roberto, honra, Israel, guelra; 

/Ro berto/, / o Ra/, /is Raew/, /gew Ra/). 

Syllable Type and Composition 

The simplest syllable type in Portuguese contains only one vowel (e.g., hd 
/a/). If the nucleus is a diphthong, one of the vowels must be both [+high] and [- 
stressed] and articulated as a phonetic glide (e.g., oi /oj/). In Table 2-5 the syllable 
nuclei are represented by V and different consonants by C. 

In Portuguese, not all consonants occur in every position. The restrictions 
of occurrence are best understood if single consonants and clusters are considered 
separately. Table 2-6 illustrates the positions within words in which consonant 
singletons can occur in Portuguese. 

The number of possible consonant sequences in Portuguese is limited, and 
the ones that hold the most interest are those that form cohesive clusters within 
the same syllable. In clusters of the general type CC, the consonants are 
necessarily different from each other; there are no sequences of identical 
consonants in Portuguese. The first consonant must be a nonnasal stop (/p/, /b/, 
/t/, /d/, fkj, or /g/) or a labiodental fricative (/if or /v/), and the other can be only 
the anterior lateral /l/ or the flap /r/. 

There are some co-occurrence restrictions for clusters (Table 2-7). First, 
there are no /dl/ clusters, except marginally in foreign lexical items and 



33 



Table 2-5. Syllabic types of Portuguese. 



V ha 

VC as 

CV da 

CVC das 

CCV pra 

CCVC cruz 

CCVCC trans 









34 



Table 2-6. Distribution of Portuguese Consonants. 









Syllable 


Word 




Word Initial 


Medial 


Final 


Final 


ivi 


pato 


capa 






M 


bata 


cabo 






N 


toca 


mato 






k 


data 


cada 






fcl 


cata 


laca 






m 


gato 


toga 






An/ 


mato 


cama 






/n/ 


nata 


cana 


canto 


sa, sao 


/*/ 


nhonho 


minha 






IV 


faca 


alfa 






hi 


vaca 


alva 






hi 


saga 


ago 


deste 


mas 


M 


zaga 


vezo 


desde 




III 


chaga 


acho 






1 1 


jato 


haja 






m 


lado 


mala 


alto 


sal 


IU 


lhama 


relho 






in 


... 


caro 


farto 


ser 


/R/ 


rato 


carro 







Table 2-7. Examples of Portuguese clusters. 



35 



Initial 



Medial 



pl 


planeta 


Pr 


prazo 


bl 


bloco 


br 


brinco 


tl 


tlintar 


tr 


... 


dl 


... 


dr 


dragao 


kl 


clarin 


kr 


crime 


gl 


glosa 


gr 


groselha 


fl 


flail ta 


fr 


frances 


vl 
vr 


Vladimir 



replica 

compra 

rublo 

abraco 

atlas 

atras 

adleriano 

adro 

eclesiastico 

recreio 

sigla 

regra 

rifle 

africano 

• •• 

lavra 






36 
derivatives, such as Adler and adleriano. Second, in initial position, /vr/ and /tl/ are 

very rare. Third, the cluster /vl/ appears initially only in the foreign name Vladimir 

and medially in borrowed words, such as the trademark Revlon. 

Other non-cluster consonant sequences are not frequent in Portuguese 
(Table 2-8). The only frequent phonological consonant sequences in Portuguese 
are /ns/ and /nd/. Here, however, after nasalization of the preceding vowel, the 
nasal consonant /n/ is usually deleted, barely leaving a phonetic trace, as in the 
plurals sons, bons and the progressive form of verbs such as nadando. 

Studies of Acquisition of Portuguese 

Very little empirical research about the acquisition or disorders of 
phonology among Portuguese speaking children in Brazil has been reported. The 
need for such research and for the publication of methodologies for the practicing 
speech-language pathologist was recognized by Yavas, Hernandorena, and 
Lamprecht in their 1991 book, Avaliaqao Fonologica da Crianqa - Reeducaqao e 
Terapia (Phonological evaluation of children). Santini and Dyson (1995) also 
stressed the importance of such research in their article, "Discussao sobre 
Metodologia de Pesquisa Relacionada a Area de Aquisiqao Fonologica" (Discussion 
of methodological issues related to phonological acquisition). Yavas et al. (1991) 
prepared their manual to provide a method for phonological analysis as a clinical 
tool. They emphasized the relationship between theoretical phonological 
principles and practical therapy issues. Two important contributions of this 
manual are the presentation of an instrument for obtaining a sample of linguistic 



Table 2-8. Consonant sequences in Portuguese. 



37 





Initial(very rare) 


Medial 




/pt/ 


ptialina 


rapto 




/pn/ 


pneu 


dispneia 




/ps/ 


psicologia 


decep$ao 




/bd/ 


bdelio 


abdicar 




/bg/ 


... 


Abgail 




/bz/ 


... 


abjeto 




/bv/ 


... 


obvio 




/bm/ 


... 


abmigracao 




/bn/ 


■ >■ 


abnegacao 




/bs/ 


... 


absorver 




/tm/ 


tmese 


atmosfera 




/dg/ 


... 


Edgar 




/dv/ 


... 


adventista 




/dm/ 


... 


admitir 




/dn/ 


... 


abdominal 




/ds/ 


... 


adstringente 




/d 5 / 


Djalma 


adjunto 




/kt/ 


ctenideo 


ectoplasma 




/kn/ 


cnemio 


tecnico 




/ks/ 


... 


ficgao 




/kz/ 


czar 


eczema 




/gf/ 


... 


Agfa 




/gn/ 


gnomo 


agnostico 




/ft/ 


ftaleina 


aftose 





38 
data (consonants) and the presentation of different theoretical and 

methodological bases for analyzing the data collected. 

The clinical instrument described by Yavas et al. (1991) was first reported 
by Yavas (1988) in a pilot study of phonological acquisition in 72 Portuguese- 
speaking children between the ages of 2:4 and 4:4. This instrument consisted of 
five theme pictures used to elicit 120 words by spontaneous naming. The words 
elicited and the procedures for their elicitation and analysis were revised and 
presented more fully by Yavas et al. (1991). 

In 1993, Lamprecht presented a study on the phonological acquisition of 
Portuguese in children aged 2:9 to 5:5. She stated that the majority of current 
studies of phonological development — normal or disordered — are based on the 
Natural Phonology Theory (Stampe, 1969, 1973). Lamprecht reported that in the 
last 10 years, 9 out of the 14 most important publications have been based on 
Stampe's model. Two others analyzed distinctive features, two were founded in 
generative phonology, and one on auto-segmental phonology. Because of this 
emphasis on natural phonology and because its application to Portuguese was not 
clear, Lamprecht (1993) conducted a longitudinal study describing the 
phonological acquisition of Portuguese based on natural phonology theory. She 
emphasized that such information is relevant, not only to enhance our knowledge 
about the normal parameters of Portuguese phonology for clinical speech therapy, 
but also as a data resource for educators in general. 



39 
Lamprecht included 12 children aged 2:9 to 5:5 in her study. The speech 

samples were collected using the five theme pictures proposed by Yavas et al. 

(1991) and described above. The data were analyzed using contrastive analysis 

and phonological processes analysis. Her findings indicated most phonological 

processes occurred less than 25% of the time by 4:2. The last processes to be 

suppressed were cluster reduction, fronting, devoicing, and deletion of liquids in 

the syllable final position within words. 

Wertzner (1992) pointed out the lack of descriptions of the articulatory 

acquisition of Brazilian children. Her study of 56 children (equally divided 

between girls and boys) was intended to verify the use of phonological contrasts 

and phonological processes in children between 3:0 to 7:0, seen at the Health 

Center "Servico de Pediatria do Centro de Saiide Escola Prof. Samuel B. Pessoa." 

All subjects were from the same "district" (Bairro do Butanta), and all were from 

a low socioeconomic status. Her specific research objectives were: (1) to describe 

the order of phoneme acquisition, the occurrence of phonological processes in the 

children's speech, and differences in the occurrence of phonological processes in 

the speech of the children and their mothers, (2) to verify the viability of using 

the Khan-Lewis (1986) analysis model to describe the use of phonological 

processes in Portuguese, and (3) to compare the first two objectives in terms of 

the imitation and naming situation. Only the first objective is of primary interest 

in the proposed study. Her results indicated some individual differences but a 

general agreement with previous literature. Plosives and nasals were acquired 












40 
first, followed by fricatives, and then liquids. In terms of place of articulation, 

labials preceded dentals/alveolars, which preceded palatals and velars. The lateral 

liquids were acquired before the non-lateral liquids. She hypothesized that the 

individual differences were due to different "strategies" used by the children. All 

phonological processes, with the exception of consonant sequence reduction, were 

suppressed by about 4:1 or 4:2. Consonant sequence reduction persisted until 

about 5:2. 

Mota (1993) looked at the practical application of phonological theory with 
Portuguese-speaking children. She conducted a study to evaluate the efficacy of a 
therapy model based on phonological processes in the treatment of children with 
developmental phonological disorders. Three subjects were selected from the 
children who went to one university speech and hearing clinic in Brazil with the 
complaint of "speech problems." All three subjects were male, ages 6:2, 5:8, and 
5:0. The subjects had been diagnosed as presenting developmental phonological 
disorders before being treated with the phonological remediation model selected 
(Hodson & Paden, 1986). 

The subject selection was based on a speech-language and hearing 
evaluation that included: an interview with parents for a case history, a 
psychomotor evaluation, an orofacial exam, a language evaluation, an auditory 
discrimination test, and complementary exams as needed (e.g., ENT, hearing 
evaluation, neurological evaluation). The results from all exams except the 
phonological evaluation were within normal limits. The phonetic inventories of all 






41 

three subjects were almost totally complete before treatment. However, their 

contrastive phone systems showed the absence of important contrasts, which made 

their speech unintelligible at times. 

The phonological treatment plan consisted of two cycles with re-evaluation 

after each cycle. Mota (1993) suggested that the results showed some 

improvement between the initial evaluation and the second re-evaluation. 

Although no information was given regarding length of treatment, the author said 

that: 

The analysis of the results obtained with this study led me to a conclusion 
that supports the validity of the method used. The value of the model 
used could be seen in terms of the short time needed to obtain significant 
improvement in the phonological system of the subjects and, therefore, in 
their pronunciation, and also in the facilitation of the appearance of carry- 
over from the small amount of sounds trained. (Mota, 1993, p.49, 
translated by this author) 

In 1994, Silverio et al. conducted a study to describe the occurrence of 
Portuguese phonemes in preschool children and to compare the phonological 
performance of children in private schools as opposed to public schools. The 
variables considered in their subject selection were: gender, age, and type of 
school attended. The study included 235 children, 117 from private schools and 
118 from public schools. The subjects were almost equally distributed between 
males and females. Their ages ranged from 2:6 to 5:6 divided into three groups: 
2:6 to 3:6, 3:6 to 4:6, 4:6 to 5:6. The testing procedure consisted of three parts: 
(1) spontaneous speech (with a set of questions), (2) picture naming (25 two- 
syllable words), and (3) word repetition (22 two-syllable words). All sounds were 



42 
tested in the initial position except for /L/, /r/, /n/, which were tested in the medial 

position. The /s/ and /r/ were tested in the word final position. The criteria for 

correct production (acquisition) by each child was one out of the three possible 

elicitations of a sound. Distorted productions were considered to be incorrect. 

According to the authors such a criterion shows that the child was capable of 

correct emission of the sound, but one cannot evaluate the systematic use of the 

sound. 

According to Silverio et al. (1994) the analysis of the data collected showed 
that: (1) the phonemes were earlier then usually reported in the literature; (2) 
there is a difference between the two groups in terms of ages when phonemes 
occur, although the hierarchy of phonemes is preserved; and (3) most of the time, 
the phonemes were used by the children without distortions or substitutions from 
the start. The authors of the study suggested that the superior performance of the 
subjects from private schools was probably due to higher expectations for children 
among those in higher social economic (and cultural) levels. 

Statement of the Problem 
The Need for this Research 

Phonological acquisition can be seen as an interesting topic that has 
fascinated researchers trying to solve the puzzle of how children learn to talk. The 
review of the literature presented above provides some examples of a large body 
of literature devoted to child phonology showing several different attempts to 
improve aspects of the investigation. It is safe to say that speech is an extremely 



43 
complex behavior that encompasses many variables, making the investigator's task 

an enormous one. 

Although several different theoretical frameworks have been applied to 
data from children's speech in English, not much has been done in terms of 
evaluating the validity of those results when applied to other languages. In terms 
of Portuguese it can be seen that child phonology is an expanding area with 
several studies dating from 1992 to the present. In addition, most studies 
addressing the acquisition of Portuguese phonology have emphasized the need for 
the collection of more data in the area (Lamprecht, 1993; Silverio et al., 1994; 
Wertzner, 1992), and especially in the area of phonological disorders. 

According to the last census, there are nearly 160 million people living in 
Brazil. Portuguese is the only language spoken in that country and no major 
dialects are found, except for small accent variations that do not affect meaning. 
This language was chosen for several different reasons. First, Portuguese operates 
differently than English; therefore, its study may provide cross- linguistic 
information on how the phonological system develops. Second, in the few studies 
found addressing the phonological acquisition of Portuguese (Hernandorena, 
1993; Lamprecht, 1993; Silverio et al., 1994; Wertzner, 1992; Yavas, 1988) the 
need for further studies that would provide large scale normative data was 
pointed out. Finally, the area of phonological disorders, more specifically, the 
field of speech-language pathology has been trying to build a more theoretical 
basis to support and legitimize clinical findings. Therefore, the present study 



44 
proposed a detailed control of many of the methodological issues raised by 

previous researchers in the attempt to provide a collection of data about 

acquisition of phonology by Portuguese speaking children. 

Purpose of Study 

The general purpose of the study was to collect normative data on the 

acquisition of consonantal sounds of Portuguese. Samples were collected from 

normally developing children in Brazil. The data were be used to answer the 

following questions: 

1. What percentage of each consonant was produced correctly by children at 
each age level? 

2. What is the age of "customary production" for each sound? 

3. What is the age of "acquisition" for each sound? 

4. What is the age of "mastery" for each sound? 



CHAPTER 3 
METHODOLOGY 



The purpose of this study was to collect normative data on the acquisition 
of the consonant sounds of Portuguese. These data were used to answer a number 
of questions about the ages and order of acquisition. 

Subjects 

The subjects included 192 monolingual, Portuguese-speaking children. 
Their ages ranged from 2:0 to 6:10 (years:months) in the following intervals: 

2:0 to 2:4, 

2:6 to 2:10, 

3:0 to 3:4, 

3:6 to 3:10, 

4:0 to 4:4, 

4:6 to 4:10, 

5:0 to 5:10, and 

6:0 to 6:10. 
Twenty-four children were included in each of the eight groups. The ages and 
composition of each group can be seen in Table 3-1. Each age group was 
intended to include an equal number of girls and boys, although a few minor 
exceptions to this rule had to be made among the youngest groups. 

45 












Table 3-1. Distribution of subjects' ages (years: months) and gender (M=male, 
F=female) in each group. 



Groups 



46 



2:0 2:6 3:0 3:6 4:0 4:6 5:0 6:0 

Age Gender Age Gender Age Gender Age Gender Age Gender Age Gender Age Gender Age Gender 



2:0 


M 


2:6 


M 


3:0 


M 


3:6 


F 


4:0 


F 


4:6 


M 


5:0 


F 


6:0 


M 


2:0 


M 


2:6 


F 


3:0 


F 


3:6 


M 


4:0 


F 


4:6 


F 


5:0 


F 


6:0 


F 


2:0 


M 


2:6 


F 


3:0 


F 


3:6 


F 


4:0 


F 


4:6 


F 


5:0 


F 


6:0 


M 


2:0 


F 


2:6 


M 


3:0 


F 


3:8 


F 


4:0 


F 


4:6 


M 


5:1 


M 


6:0 


F 


2:0 


F 


2:6 


F 


3:0 


F 


3:8 


F 


4:1 


F 


4:7 


M 


5:1 


M 


6:0 


F 


2:0 


M 


2:6 


F 


3:2 


F 


3:8 


M 


4:1 


M 


4:7 


F 


5:3 


F 


6:0 


M 


2:2 


F 


2:6 


F 


3:2 


M 


3:8 


M 


4:2 


M 


4:8 


M 


5:3 


F 


6:2 


M 


2:2 


M 


2:6 


M 


3:2 


M 


3:9 


F 


4:2 


F 


4:8 


F 


5:4 


F 


6:3 


M 


2:2 


F 


2:6 


F 


3:2 


F 


3:9 


M 


4:2 


F 


4:8 


M 


5:4 


M 


6:3 


F 


2:2 


M 


2:7 


M 


3:2 


M 


3:9 


F 


4:2 


M 


4:8 


F 


5:4 


F 


6:4 


F 


2:2 


F 


2:8 


M 


3:2 


F 


3:10 


M 


4:2 


M 


4:8 


F 


5:4 


F 


6:5 


M 


2:2 


M 


2:8 


F 


3:2 


M 


3:10 


M 


4:2 


F 


4:8 


F 


5:4 


M 


6:6 


M 


2:2 


F 


2:8 


F 


3:3 


F 


3:10 


F 


4:2 


M 


4:8 


M 


5:5 


M 


6:6 


F 


2:2 


M 


2:8 


F 


3:3 


F 


3:10 


F 


4:2 


F 


4:8 


M 


5:5 


F 


6:6 


F 


2:2 


F 


2:8 


F 


3:4 


M 


3:10 


M 


4:2 


M 


4:8 


M 


5:5 


M 


6:7 


F 


2:3 


F 


2:9 


M 


3:4 


M 


3:10 


F 


4:2 


M 


4:8 


F 


5:6 


M 


6:7 


M 


2:3 


F 


2 


10 


M 


3:4 


M 


3:10 


M 


4:3 


F 


4:9 


F 


5:7 


F 


6:7 


F 


2:4 


F 


2 


10 


F 


3:4 


F 


3:10 


M 


4:3 


M 


4:9 


M 


5:7 


M 


6:7 


F 


2:4 


M 


2 


10 


M 


3:4 


M 


3:10 


F 


4:3 


F 


4:9 


F 


5:9 


M 


6:8 


M 


2:4 


F 


2 


10 


F 


3:4 


F 


3:10 


M 


4:3 


F 


4:9 


M 


5:10 


M 


6:8 


F 


2:4 


F 


2 


10 


F 


3:4 


M 


3:10 


M 


4:4 


M 


4:10 


M 


5:10 


M 


6:8 


M 


2:4 


M 


2 


10 


M 


3:4 


F 


3:10 


M 


4:4 


M 


4:10 


F 


5:10 


F 


6:9 


M 


2:4 


M 


2 


10 


F 


3:4 


M 


3:10 


F 


4:4 


M 


4:10 


M 


5:10 


M 


6:9 


F 


2:4 


F 


2 


10 


M 


3:4 


F 


3:10 


F 


4:4 


M 


4:10 


F 


5:10 


F 


6:9 


M 



47 
An oro-facial screening examination was conducted to exclude subjects who 

showed any abnormalities in the speech mechanism that could interfere with 

speech production and/or language development. No child considered as a subject 

exhibited such physical abnormality. 

The selection of subjects was intended to represent the socioeconomic 

status of the population of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. An attempt to mirror 

the entire population was made by testing children from both one public and two 

private schools. 

The Assessment Instrument 
Stimuli 

A picture-naming test developed by Yavas et al. (1991) was used to collect 
the data. The test consists of five theme pictures (Vehicles, Living Room, Bath. 
Room, Kitchen, and Zoo) used to elicit spontaneous single word responses. The 
pictures can be seen in Appendix A, and the word lists in Table 3-2. The five 
theme pictures encouraged the elicitation of 125 words, 97 basic words plus 28 
optional words shown in italics. The words sampled are commonly present in 
children above 3 years of age, test the target sounds necessary, and are easily 
represented through drawings (Yavas et al., 1991). The numbers of each sound 
tested in each position are presented in Table 3-3. According to Yavas et al., the 
words chosen had the following phonological criteria: (1) a balanced 



Table 3-2. List of words targeted by each picture. 



48 







Folha de Gravacao 






Nome: 








Data: 


Idade: 










Zoo 


Kitchen 


Living 
Room 


Bath 
Room 


Vehicles 


borboleta 


abacaxi 


brinquedo 


banquinho 


andar 


cachorro 


acucar 


cruz 


blusa 


bicicleta 


cobra 


cafe 


dinheiro 


bolso 


brincar 


comer 


estrela 


disco 


braco 


carro 


dois 


feijao 


globo 


calca 


criancas 


dragao 


fogao 


guarda 


camisa 


dizer 


flor 


frio 


chuva 


chave 


dirigir 


floresta 


fruta 


igreja 


chinelo 


estrada 


grama 


garrafa 


jornal 


dedo 


frente 


grande 


geladeira 


lapis 


dente 


fumaca 


latir 


janela 


livro 


escovar 


microfone 


olhar 


prato 


martelo 


nariz 


nadar 


passarinho 


soprar 


mesa 


pescoco 


nuvem 


pedra 


vela 


palhaco 


relogio 


placa 


peixe 


vidro 


planta 


sabonete 


tia/tio 


pular 


banana 


prego 


toalha 


tocar 


rabo 


bolo 


quadro 


esperar 


trator 


sol 


fogo 


radio 


armdrio 


trem 


tigre 


ovo 


tapete 


azulejos 


ancora 


verde 


tampa 


televisao 


cabelo 


chamine 


zebra 




tesoura 


cano 


navio 


zoologico 




antena 


espelho 


roda 


orelha 




botao 


menino 


trilho 


voar 




estante 


perna 


sino 






franja 


porta 








poltrona 


saia 








telhado 


sapato 
tomeira 





49 



Table 3-3. Distribution of consonants by position. SIWI=syllable-initial, 

word-initial; SIWW=syllable-initial, within-word; SFWW= 
syllable-final, within-word, SFWF=syllable-final, word-final 



SIWI 



SIWW 



SFWW SFWF 



Total 

per sound 



b 




10 


7 




P 




11 


4 




d 




4 


22 




t 




6 


11 




9 




5 


6 




k 




10 


13 




m 




4 


4 




n 
P 




4^ 


10 

3 


12 


V 




4 


8 




f 




9 


3 




z 




2 


5 




s 




5 


10 


8 


/ 




2 


3 






3 




3 


5 




t/ 




3 


5 




d3 


; 5 „\ 




3 




L 




! Ill 


5 




1 

r 


3 


12 
9 


£ 


X 




4 


3 





Total per 
position 



92 



151 



26 



17 
15 
26 
17 
11 
23 
8 

26 
3 

12 
12 
7 

28 
5 
8 
8 
6 
5 
15 
18 
7 

277 






50 
representation of the target phonological system of Portuguese (that is, the adults' 

phonological system); (2) more than one occurrence of each possible different 
target; and 3) opportunities for the sounds to occur in different positions within 
the words and in words with differing syllable structure and number of syllables. 
Four syllable and word structures were considered: SIWI (syllable-initial, word- 
initial), SIWW (syllable-initial, within word), SFWW (syllable-final, within word), 
and SFWF (syllable-final, word-final). 

The five theme pictures allowed the elicitation of 125 words along with the 
opportunity to elicit more data in the form of narratives and descriptions. 
According to Yavas et al., the set of pictures allows the elicitation of a 
representative sample because it is not limited to one representative of each 
target sound. Contrary to most articulation tests, this test provides at least three 
possible occurrences of each consonant sound of Portuguese in all positions. The 
only instances where the principle of three occurrences in all positions is not met 
are described below. 

It] SIWI. The Portuguese vocabulary has few examples of /z/ in the word 
initial position. The two words included in the test {zebra and zoologico — zebra 
and zoo) can be easily produced by children as young as 3 years old. 

/tf/, /dg/ SIWI and SIWW. Although these two sounds (affricates) are 
normal allophones of /t/ and /d/ in most variants of Portuguese, they were 
included in order to provide a more complete picture of child phonology. The 
pictures elicited only two words for each of the two sounds in SIWI because a 



51 
third example is expected to occur naturally when the child says tio and/or tio, 

referring to the examiner, and some forms of the verb dizer, as digo or disse {to 

say). 

IV SFWW and SFWF. Only two words were provided for each of the two 
syllable-final possibilities. Yavas et al. suggested that, because the /l/ is produced 
as a semi-vowel in final position, the two examples provided are enough for the 
this non-consonantal sound. 

Clusters. Most clusters were elicited in only one example, and some 
clusters are not even present. This decision was made based upon the rationale of 
presenting an adequate vocabulary for children. Even the limited set of word 
containing clusters that are included may not be totally appropriate for young 
children. For example, the words: vidro, dragao, floresta, globo, prego, igreja, cruz, 
poltrona, trator, estrada, trilho, planta (glass, dragon, forest, globe, nail, church, 
couch, tractor, road, rail road, plant) may not occur spontaneously in the speech of 
young children. In addition, it has been observed that even older children who 
produce these words, often reduce the clusters. The words fruta and brinquedo 
{fruit and toy) seemed easy but are difficult to elicit because they refer to 
collective nouns and not to specific names. It should also be noted that the 
number of possible consonant sequences in Portuguese is limited, and clusters do 
not occur often. 

Some words that were not represented in the pictures needed to be elicited 
by a question. These words are: dizer, dois, frente, frio, grande, latir, microfone, 



52 
soprar, tia/tio, verde, zoologico (to say, two, front, cold, big, to bark, microphone, to 
blow, aunt, green, zoo). Some words to be elicited were directly related to a 
specific picture; for example, latir (to bark) appeared in the list of words for the 
zoo picture because that is where the dog is represented. Other words that are not 
directly related to any one picture were distributed between the five drawings so 
that no word list would carry more or less words to be elicited verbally. However, 
the words that were not directly represented in the drawings could be easily 
integrated in the exam as part of the conversation. These are microfone, dizer, 
tia/tio, and frente (microphone, to say, colloquial name for Ms/Mr, and in front of). 

Procedure 

The test was administered to each child individually in a quiet room. If the 
child refused to stay alone with the examiner, one adult was allowed to stay with 
the child. When testing the youngest children, the class teacher or the aid usually 
stayed with the child and helped the examiner. The exam was tape recorded using 
a lapel microphone clipped to the child's clothing, approximately six to eight 
inches from the child's mouth. A total of thirty-five 90-minute tapes were used for 
the recordings. 

To administer the test the examiner placed each of the five theme pictures 
one at a time in front of the child. The child was instructed to look at the picture 
and then to tell all that he/she could about it. The examiner followed the child's 
productions using an alphabetical list of all the words to be elicited by each 
picture. The examiner repeated the responses of very young children who 



53 
appeared difficult to understand to ensure that they would be recognized on the 
tape recording. A check mark was placed on the response form beside each word 
named by the child, regardless of the accuracy of the articulation. The words that 
were optional appeared in italics and were not prompted if not produced 
spontaneously. When a child did not produce all of the obligatory words, the 
examiner used delayed imitation with some form of the question: "This is a 
cabinet (target word) in the bathroom (picture name)? Can you tell me that?" In 
cases where delayed imitation did not elicit the desired word, direct imitation was 
used. The child was sometimes praised and/or encouraged to name the pictures 
but was not reinforced for correct productions. 
Duration of the Exam 

The exam was performed in 20 to 30 minutes with most children. For the 
younger children, a much longer session often was needed, and three subjects 
were tested in two sessions to assure the validity and reliability of results. 
Test Environment 

The room used for the data collection was a quiet room away from street 
noise or conversational background noise. The examiner and the child were 
usually sitting at the table, although the younger children were often tested on the 
floor. 
Examiners 

Three examiners, including the author of this research, collected the data. 
All three examiners were speech-language pathologists with several years of 



54 

experience. The author trained the examiners to administer and record the exam 

and provided a written protocol for them to follow to ensure a standard 
procedure and to clarify possible questions. In fact, the author tested 
approximately 60-70% of the children herself. 
Tape Recording Equipment and Procedure 

The exam was recorded using a Marantz tape recorder model CH 221 with 
an external lapel microphone. The entire exam session was recorded because 
words used in the greeting and the test recording were analyzed as a part of the 
sample (i.e., tia, a colloquial name for an adult female; microfone, microphone; 
dizer, to say). Each taped sample was checked immediately after recording to 
ensure that it was audible and had a minimum of extraneous noise. None of the 
samples needed to be discarded for any technical reason. 
Transcription 

Narrow transcription was used to transcribe the children's productions of 
the target sound. Approximately 30% of the audiotape material was transcribed 
by two trained and experienced transcribers, the author and supervisor, using the 
consensus procedure outlined by Shriberg et al. (1984). After transcription of each 
utterance, the two versions were compared. Segments on which the transcribers 
agreed were accepted and entered on the data collection sheet mentioned above. 
Disagreements were resolved by replaying the utterance a maximum of three 
times with each transcriber attempting to hear the other's transcription as well as 



55 
trying to confirm their own transcription. The remaining 70% were transcribed by 
the author alone with spot checks by the supervisor. 

To examine the reliability of transcription, 10% of the samples, one subject 
selected randomly from each group were transcribed independently by the two 
listeners. A program for computing reliability using relative weights for different 
types of disagreement was used. This program, which is part of the Logical 
International Phonetics Program - LIPP (Oiler & Delgado, 1990) was used for the 
analysis of the data and for comparison of the two transcribed versions sound by 
sound. The rule set for this program was originally included in the LIPP but 
several modifications were made for the sounds of Portuguese. 
Data Entry and Tabulation 

After transcribing each sample, the data were entered on a data collection 
sheet (Appendix B) and later entered into the computer using the LIPP (Oiler & 
Delgado, 1990). This program allows entry of data in IPA symbols with any 
desired set of diacritic mark. The expected standard form of each target sound 
was entered in the LIPP program ahead of time. For each sound tested, a set of 
rules compares the child's production with the acceptable response to determine 
whether or not the response can be counted as "correct." 
Validity of the Test 

In order to account for word elicitation, a pilot study conducted by Yavas 
et al. (1991) tested 40 children between 3 and 4 years of age. The results showed 
that most basic words reached at least 50% adequate elicitation. The basic words 






56 
that did not meet the 50% criteria were: zoologico, zebra, globo, floresta, planta, 
microfone, placa, fruta, cruz, claw, igreja, and dragao (Zoo, zebra, globe, florest, 
plant, microphone, sign, fruit, cross, bright, church, and dragon). Those words were 
maintained on the test to provide a significant phonological sample as other 
suitable words could not be found (Yavas et al., 1991). In terms of content 
validity, this is implicit in this type of study when all sounds of the language in all 
positions are included. To examine construct validity, the extent to which accuracy 
of the sounds on the test reflects increases due to increasing age were observed as 
a part of the overall purpose of the study. 
Presentation of the Data 

To determine the percentages of each consonant sound produced correctly 
at each age level, the data were tabulated by age level and by sex, with an entry 
made for each sound. The four positions were treated independently to control 
for the position factor. The percentages of correct productions at each age level 
in each position (e.g., SIWI) was computed separately from the percentages in 
any of the other three possible positions (SIWW, SFWW, and SFWF). 



CHAPTER 4 
RESULTS 

This study was undertaken to answer four questions. The results intended 
to answer the first question will be presented first under several headings. The 
remaining three questions will be combined, and the results intended to answer 
these three questions will be presented together. 

Question 1. What percentage of each consonant was produced 
correctly by children at each age level? 

The percentages of correct production at each age level for all sounds 
combined can be seen in Figure 4-1. It should be noted that the youngest subjects 
sampled in this research were 2 years old, which suggests that phonological 
acquisition had started before the child was tested. Over 50% of the consonants 
attempted were already produced correctly by the youngest group. It can be seen 
that between the first group (2:0) and the second group (2:6), the most dramatic 
increase in accuracy was made, from 51% to 67%. The increases between each of 
the other groups ranged from 2% to 9%. By 4:0 phonological acquisition was 
essentially complete. Between the ages of 4:0 and 6:0, there is a two year time 
frame during which the change was very subtle. By 6:0, 97% of the consonants 
were correct. 



57 



58 



100% 



Consonants Produced Correctly 



80% - 



o 



60% 

0) 

D) 
CO 

1 40% 
o 

(D 

20% 4- 



0% J — > 



97% 




4 h 



2:0 2:6 3:0 3:6 4:0 4:6 5:0 6:0 

Age 



Figure 4-1. Overall percentage of consonants produced correctly by each group. 









59 



SIWI. Syllable-Initial, Word-Initial 

The percentages of each consonant produced correctly in the SIWI 
position by all groups can be seen in Table 4-1. The results for each group are 
illustrated separately on Figures 4-2 through 4-9. It can be seen that the nasals 
and the stops were produced correctly earlier then the fricatives and liquids, with 
the exception of the two fricatives lil and /v/, which were acquired earlier than the 
others. A tendency to produce voiceless consonants more accurately than voiced 
consonants was observed across all age groups. The youngest groups showed a 
marked increase in the percentage of correct production for both nasals and stops 
between 2:0 and 2:6 years of age. The liquids were produced with greater than 
80% accuracy at age 3:0 in SIWI position. The fricatives /s, z, /, 5/ were the least 
accurate sounds. The affricates, especially /t//, were produced correctly earlier 
than the fricatives, at age 3:0. 
SIWW, Syllable-Initial. Within-Word 

The percentages of each consonant produced correctly in the SIWW 
position by all groups can be seen in Table 4-2. The results for each group are 
illustrated separately on Figures 4-10 through 4-17. For syllable-initial within-word 
(SIWW) position it can be seen that the nasals and stops were again produced 
earlier than the fricatives and the liquids, with the exception of /f/ and /v/, which 
were acquired earlier. It should be noted that three nasals were possible in this 
position as opposed to SIWI, where only two occur. However, this did not change 
the percentage of correct occurrence of nasals in relation with the SIWI position. 



60 



Table 4-1. Percentage of each consonant produced correctly in the SIWI position in 
each age group. 



9 



Age Groups 



2:0 2:6 3:0 3:6 4:0 4:6 £0 6:0 

"b 46.85% 70.72% 86.88% 93.22% 94.89% 97.91% 96.17% 100.00% 

p 82.88% 96.57% 96.14% 98.35% 99.19% 99.60% 99.21% 99.61% 

d 42.31% 80.33% 80.68% 96.70% 96.74% 96.81% 95.79% 100.00% 

t 78.22% 87.38% 96.21% 95.71% 97.20% 98.58% 99.29% 100.00% 

25.93% 66.22% 71.96% 89.17% 94.96% 95.76% 94.07% 99.17% 

k 71.92% 92.98% 92.44% 98.73% 99.15% 100.84% 100.00% 100.00% 

m 75.93% 87.50% 95.71% 97.50% 98.75% 96.55% 100.00% 100.00% 

n 58.00% 78.95% 90.41% 85.92% 87.84% 88.46% 96.10% 95.29% 

v 31.43% 63.46% 66.67% 85.56% 92.22% 91.40% 95.79% 98.95% 

f 67.86% 93.38% 94.41% 98.96% 99.48% 98.45% 100.00% 100.00% 

z 29.41% 60.00% 37.50% 57.78% 70.83% 75.56% 72.92% 97.92% 

s 25.93% 31.75% 40.43% 61.05% 69.00% 84.21% 93.27% 90.29% 

/ 13.79% 17.95% 45.83% 66.67% 87.23% 89.58% 93.75% 97.96% 

3 12.96% 14.52% 25.35% 47.89% 44.44% 71.83% 83.10% 95.83% 

If 40.43% 78.18% 80.56% 89.71% 95.71% 98.55% 94.44% 100.00% 

d 3 14.29% 39.13% 52.46% 65.22% 82.86% 87.32% 94.20% 100.00% 

l 31.25% 79.55% 86.36% 87.14% 98.59% 100.00% 98.59% 98.61% 

r 15.91% 37.93% 80.82% 91.25% 96.00% 98.73% 98.77% 98.73% 

All 

Sounds 40.28% 61.92% 69.52% 79.29% 84.48% 87.90% 89.76% 93.28% 



61 



100% 



<D 80% 






SIWI-Group 2:0 




Figure 4-2. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 2:0. 



62 






SIWI-Group 2:6 

1 nno/ L 


I UU 70 i 

-t—> _ 
CD 80% « I 

O | 

° 60% 1 III 
0) 

-£ 40% tl III 

1 III 

(D 20% | III 

go/ H ■ H ■ 














b p d t gkmnvfzs/3t/d3] 

Sound 


X 



Figure 4-3. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 2:6. 



63 



100% 



d) 


80% 


i_ 




s— 




o 




O 


60% 







D) 




CD 




4—) 

c 


40% 







O 




i— 




CD 


20% 


Q_ 





SIWI-Group 3:0 



o% 




Figure 4-4. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 3:0. 






64 






100% 



80% 



0) 20% 
Q_ 



SIWI--Group 3:6 




Figure 4-5. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 3:6. 






65 



100% 



80% 

o 

° 60% 
<D 
D) 
CO 

-£ 40% 

0) 
o 



<D 20% + 
Q_ 



SIWI--Group 4:0 




Figure 4-6. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 4:0. 






66 




Figure 4-7. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 4:6. 



67 



100% 



q 80% 



<D 20% 



SIWI-Group 5:0 




Figure 4-8. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 5:0. 



68 



SIWI--Group 6:0 



100% 



o 




CD 


80% \ 


i_ 




o 


f 


O 


60%| 


<D 




D) 


- 


m 




c 


40% + 







O 




a) 


20% - 


Q_ 









Figure 4-9. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWI position for 
Group 6:0. 



69 



Table 4-2. Percentage of each consonant produced correctly in the SIWW position in 
each age group 

Age Groups 

2:0 2:6 3:0 3:6 4:0 4:6 5:0 6:0 

b 51.09% 78.23% 77.02% 91.57% 94.01% 96.39% 94.61% 98.81% 

p 94.12% 100.00% 51.09% 100.00% 100.00% 96.51% 100.00% 100.00% 

d 51.28% 56.46% 69.15% 76.41% 83.95% 82.28% 88.62% 93.90% 

t 94.22% 100.00% 99.15% 99.59% 97.57% 99.60% 98.81% 100.00% 

g 48.15% 61.11% 67.24% 82.11% 90.91% 94.26% 91.20% 98.40% 

k 75.57% 97.87% 94.72% 98.64% 99.03% 99.67% 98.69% 99.68% 

m 91.43% 94.34% 96.30% 100.00% 100.00% 98.95% 98.95% 100.00% 

n 87.23% 94.48% 98.97% 98.56% 98.08% 97.67% 99.09% 100.00% 

v 47.71% 65.32% 65.22% 81.17% 89.10% 93.98% 90.91% 97.75% 

f 82.93% 96.30% 96.97% 98.51% 100.00% 100.00% 98.55% 100.00% 

z 36.25% 40.38% 42.02% 52.10% 66.12% 75.00% 83.19% 92.50% 

s 30.15% 33.95% 47.56% 58.72% 58.58% 80.17% 85.23% 91.25% 

f 18.33% 28.17% 54.79% 73.97% 86.11% 90.28% 91.67% 98.61% 

3 16.00% 21.21% 28.16% 35.65% 58.47% 69.83% 76.47% 87.50% 

tf 53.57% 78.67% 79.82% 88.70% 93.50% 97.44% 95.80% 100.00% 

d 3 17.86% 26.53% 47.69% 46.38% 67.61% 72.22% 81.94% 92.96% 

1 52.71% 87.50% 85.87% 85.00% 96.83% 100.00% 96.15% 98.95% 

x 35.59% 50.00% 83.33% 90.28% 92.86% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 

All 

Sounds 54.68% 67.25% 71.39% 80.96% 87.37% 91.35% 92.77% 97.24% 



70 






SIWW--Group 2:0 



100% 

o 

P 80% 




bpd t gkmnpv fz s / 3 t/ d3 L 1 rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-10. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 
for Group 2:0. 



71 



SIWW-Group 2:6 



100% 

-i— < 

o 

g) 80% 




bpdtgkmnpv f z s / 3 t/ 03 L 1 rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-11. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 
for Group 2:6. 



72 



100% 

o 

0) 80% 



SIWW--Group 3:0 




bpdtgkmnjiv f z s / 3 t/ d3 L 1 rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-12. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 
for Group 3:0. 



73 



100% 

■4— < 

o 

P 80% 



SIWW-Group 3:6 




bpdtgkmnpv f z s / 3 t/djl I rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-13. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 



for Group 3:6. 






74 



SIWW-Group 4:0 



100% 

•4— ' 

o 

P 80% 




bpd tgkmnjiv fz s / 3 t/ (I3 L 1 rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-14. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 
for Group 4:0. 



75 



SIWW--Group 4:6 



100% 



o 







80% 


L_ 




o 




O 


60% 


<D 




U) 




m 






40% 


CD 




O 




0) 


20% 


a. 





bpdtgkmnpvfzs/3t/d3Ll rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-15. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 
for Group 4:6. 



76 



SIWW--Group 5:0 



100% 

o 

0) 80% 

o 

° 60% 
<D 
U) 

•2 40% 
CD 

S 20% 
QL 



bpdtgkmnjiv f z s / 3 t/ (I3 L I rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-16. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 
for Group 5:0. 



77 



100% 



o 



£ 80% - 



O 

O 

<D 
O) 

CD 

■*—> 

c 
CD 

O 

v_ 



0- 



60% 
40% 
20% 



SIWW--Group 6:0 



bpdtgkmnpv f z s / 3 t/ (I3 L 1 rx 

Sound 



Figure 4-17. Percentages of accuracy of each consonant in the SIWW position 
for Group 6:0. 



78 
A tendency to produce voiceless sounds more accurately than voiced 
sounds can be seen again for all age groups. As in the SIWI position, a growth 
spurt can be seen between Group 2:0 and Group 2:6, especially on nasals and 
stops. It should be noted that four liquids were possible in this position as 
opposed to SIWI, where only two occur. The inclusion of these two additional 
consonants, the /L/ and the /r/, in SIWW position appeared to affect the overall 
performance on the liquids. The /l/ and /R/ (indicated on figures as /x/ because of 
font restrictions) showed approximately equally correct production, over 75% at 
Group 3:0. However, the [LI and /r/ lagged behind and did not reach 75% correct 
until 4:0 or later. The affricates were produced correctly earlier than the 
fricatives. The voiceless affricate /t// was again more accurate than the voiced 
cognate /dj/. The fricatives were produced correctly later than the other sounds, 
with the exception of /f/ and /v/. 
Comparison of Percentages of Correct Production by Position 

Table 4-3 (also presented as Table 3-3) illustrates that most consonants 
tested are possible in only two positions, SIWI and SIWW. Portuguese has very 
few consonants that are either syllable final or word final. In the SFWF position 
only /s/ and /r/ occur, whereas in the SFWW position /n/, /s/, and /r/ occur. 
Variants used in some geographical areas also would include final f\J. Other areas 
would consider final /// and /R/ instead of /s/ and /r/ as correct productions. 

In the next section each group will be considered, starting with the 
youngest group, 2:0. The results are illustrated on three figures for each group, 






79 



Table 4-3. Distribution of consonants by position. SIWI=syllable-initial, 

word-initial, SIWW=syllable-initial, within-word, SFWW= 
syllable-final, within-word; SFWF=syllable-final, word-final. 



SIWI 



SIWW 



SFWW 



SFWF 



Total 

per sound 



b 


10 


7 






P 


11 


4 






d 


4 


22 






t 


6 


11 






g 


5 


6 






k 


10 


13 


01111111111 




m 


4 


4 


mMmWmm 




n 


4 


10 


„„„„„ 12 




P 




3 


?fllll!!!ll 




V 


4 


8 


lilllilllll:. 




f 


9 


3 






z 


2 


5 






s 


5 


10 


,,,,,,,,,,,, ?,,,, 




/ 

3 


2 
3 


3 
5 


illlllllll 


:-li : llHll 


if 


3 


5 


llll|||:||i; 




d 3 


3 


3 


:::S>::>^S^:^o:::^^:::>:: 


111111111 


L 




5 






1 


3 


12 


i 




r 


fllmfe 


9 


6 




X 


4 


3 







Total per 

position 



i 



92 



151 



26 



17 
15 
26 
17 
11 
23 
8 

26 
3 

12 
12 
7 
28 
5 
8 
8 
6 
5 
15 
18 
7 

277 



80 
the first showing stops, the second showing fricatives and affricates, and the third 

showing nasals and liquids. 

Group 2:0 . Figures 4-18 to 4-20 show the accuracy of stops, nasals and 
liquids, and fricatives and affricates, respectively, in the two positions tested. It 
can be seen that children in Group 2:0 were more accurate in the SIWW position 
than in SIWI for all sounds. The liquid /r/ in all positions, including the SFWF, 
starts with a very low percentage of correct production by Group 2:0. The 
fricative /s/ in SFWW also has a low percentage of correct production in the early 
age groups. 

Group 2:6 . In Figures 4-21 to 4-23 it can be seen that the accuracy for 
most sounds in the SIWW position is still somewhat higher than in the SIWI 
position. However, a reversal can be seen for the stops /d/ and /g/, the fricative /z/, 
and the affricate /dj/. All three of these voiced sounds are now produced more 
accurately in the SIWI position. Group 2:6 continued to show a much higher 
percentage of correct production of the fricative /s/ in SFWF than in SFWW. 

Groups 3:0-6:0 . In the next group, 3:0, Figures 4-24 to 4-26 show that the 
accuracy of the SIWW is practically level with the SIWI position for all sounds, 
except /p/. This trend towards more equal accuracy of production for the two 
positions can be seen in Figures 4-27 to 4-41 to continue for all groups and all 
sounds from Group 3:6 to Group 6:0. 

A t-test was performed using percentages of correct production of all 
sounds for each of the three youngest groups to evaluate the difference between 



81 



100% 



80% 



Group 2:0-Stops 




SIWI 



SI WW 



Figure 4-18. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 2:0. 



82 



100% 

"G 

2 80% 

i_ 

O 

O 



Group 2:0-Nasals & Liquids 




P L 
Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW HSFWWHSFWF 



Figure 4-19. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 2:0. 






83 



Group 2:0-Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW BSFWW^SFWF 



Figure 4-20. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 2:0. 



84 



100% 



80% 



0) 20% 
Q. 



Group 2:6~Stops 




SIWI 



siww 



Figure 4-21. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 2:6. 



85 



100% 



Group 2:6-Nasals & Liquids 




n L 1 

Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW ■SFWW^SFWF 



Figure 4-22. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 2:6. 



86 



Group 2:6--Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW aSFWWSSFWF 



Figure 4-23. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 2:6. 



87 



100% 



CD 80% 



Group 3:0--Stops 




SIWI HSIWW 



Figure 4-24. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 3:0. 









88 



100% 



o 



E 80% 



60% 



O 

O 
d) 

TO 



-» 40% 



c 

O 



£ 20% 





Q_ 



Group 3:0-Nasals & Liquids 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW BSFWW^SFWF 






Figure 4-25. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 3:0. 



89 



Group 3:0--Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 

■4-» 

o 

2 80% 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW ■SFWW^SFWF 



Figure 4-26. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 3:0. 



90 






100% 



Group 3:6--Stops 




SIWI HSIWW 



Figure 4-27. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 3:6. 



91 



100% 

t3 

£ 80% 



Group 3:6-Nasals & Liquids 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW ■SFWW^SFWF 



Figure 4-28. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 3:6. 



92 



Group 3:6--Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 



£ 80% 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW BSFWW^SFWF 



Figure 4-29. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 3:6. 



93 



100% 



0) 80% 

i_ 
O 

° 60% 
<D 
D) 

•j? 40% 

CD 
O 

20% 
Q. 

0% 



Group 4:0--Stops 




SIWI ■SIWW 



Figure 4-30. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 4:0. 






94 



Group 4:0--Nasals & Liquids 




m 



n L 

Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW ■SFWWaSFWF 



Figure 4-31. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 4:0. 



95 









Group 4:0--Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 



£ 80% 




Sounds 



tf d 3 



SIWI 



SIWW HSFWWaSFWF 



Figure 4-32. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 4:0. 









96 



120% 



g 100% - 

Q 80%- 



CD 60% + 

CD 

§ 40%- 
o 



CD 



20% 



0% 



Group 4:6--Stops 




SIWI 



SIWW 



Figure 4-33. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 4:6. 



97 



Group 4:6-Nasals & Liquids 




SIWI 



— 



L 

Sounds 




SIWW ■SFWV\mSFWF 



Figure 4-34. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 4:6. 



98 



Group 4:6~Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW HSFWW^SFWF 



Figure 4-35. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 4:6. 



99 



100% 



Group 5:0--Stops 



SIWI HSIWW 




Figure 4-36. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 5:0. 









100 



Group 5:0-Nasals & Liquids 



100% 




SIWI 






I 



J 



L 1 

Sounds 




SIWW ■SFWWSSFWF 



Figure 4-37. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 5:0. 



101 



Group 5:0-Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 




Sounds 



SIWI 



SIWW ■SFWW^SFWF 



Figure 4-38. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 5:0. 



102 



100% 



CD 80% 
C 

o 

° 60% 
0) 
O) 

H 40% 

CD 

O 

0) 20% 
Q. 

0% 



Group 6:0-Stops 





SIWI hsiww 



Figure 4-39. Comparison of accuracy of stops in SIWI and SIWW positions for 
Group 6:0. 



103 



Group 6:0--Nasals & Liquids 



100%-m 



o 



CD 


80% 


s— 




O 




O 


60% 


d) 




O) 




CD 

■+- ■ 


40% 


c 




<D 




() 




i— 


?()% 


U) 




Q. 





0% 




SIWI 



V 






Sounds 



J 



SIWW HSFWWBSFWF 



Figure 4-40. Comparison of accuracy of nasals and liquids in SIWI and SIWW 
positions for Group 6:0. 



104 



Group 6:0--Fricatives & Affricates 



100% 



s / 

Sounds 




SIWI 



SIWW ■SFWW^SFWF 












Figure 4-41. Comparison of accuracy of fricatives and affricates in SIWI and 
SIWW positions for Group 6:0. 



105 
the SIWI position and the SIWW position. Only Group 2:0 showed a significant 

difference at the .05 level (t = -6.594, df = 17). The apparent differences in 

accuracy, favoring SIWW in the second group and SIWI in the third, were not 

significant (t = -.741 and .695, respectively, df =17, p = .05). Because the 

differences in position were even smaller in the older groups, the statistical test 

was not repeated for these groups. 

The one sound that appears to be produced more accurately in the SIWI 
across all ages is the /d/. It is possible that the /d/ presents a higher percentage in 
the SIWI position than in the SIWW position due to the fact that many verbs 
were used in the progressive form. In Portuguese the /nd/ is used to indicate this 
form (e.g., nadar/nadando, for swim/swimming), and the /d/ tends to be dropped in 
casual speech (e.g., /nadandu/ -» [nadanu]). 
Clusters 

It should be noted that only two types of consonant clusters occur regularly 
in Portuguese. These consist of a stop or fricative plus /r/ or IV (e.g., prato, flor; 
plate, flower). As previously mentioned, the /nd/ sequence is used to indicate the 
present progressive form of verbs. It is considered a sequence rather than a 
cluster because one consonant is perceived as ending a syllable and the second as 
beginning the next syllable. Figure 4-42 illustrates the percentages of correct /r/ 
and l\l clusters and the /nd/ sequence across age groups. It can be seen that 
neither the /r/ nor IV cluster was used very accurately in the early age groups. At 
4:6 there is an increased percentage of correct production of the clusters that 



106 






100% 



Clusters & Sequence 




M Cluster ■ /I/ Cluster H/nd/ Seq 



Figure 4-42. Percentages of correct production of two types of clusters and the 
/nd/ sequence by each group. 



107 
continues gradually through Group 6:0. The sequence /nd/ shows a higher 
percentage of accuracy at the younger ages, leveling with the clusters by Group 
4:6 and continuing to increase steadily with age. 
Comparison of Percentages of Correct Production of Boys and Girls 

The percentage of correct consonants produced by boys and girls was 
analyzed separately to investigate the possible difference in performance between 
the two groups. Figure 4-43 shows these percentages graphically. It can be seen 
that very little difference between the two groups occurred. A t-test was run for 
the percentages of consonants produced correctly at each age to determine if this 
was a significant difference. In fact, no significant difference was found between 
the two sets of scores (t = -1.286, df = 8, p=.05). 

Question 2. What is the age of "customary production" for each sound? 

Question 3. What is the age of "acquisition" for each sound? 

Question 4. What is the age of "mastery" for each sound? 

These three questions will be addressed together in this section. The 
traditional definitions of these ages have been offered by Sander (1972). One 
variation from Sander's recommendations was needed for adaptation to 
Portuguese. Customary age is traditionally defined as the age at which 50% of the 
children in an age group produce a sound correctly in at least two positions. 
Because most consonants only occur in two positions in Portuguese, customary age 
was defined as the age at which at least 50% of the productions of a sound in an 
age group were correct in all positions tested. The other two ages were used with 



108 



80% - 



100% 



90% 



o 

CD 

!_ 
i_ 

o 
O 

CD 

D) 70% 

CTJ 

C 

O 60% 

CD 
Q. 



50% ■- 



40% 



Percentage Correct-Boys & Girls 




Age 



Boys -— Girls 



2:0 2:6 3:0 3:6 4:0 4:6 5:0 6:0 



Figure 4-43. Comparison of accuracy of consonants produced by boys and girls in 
each group. 



109 
only minor variation from Sander's standard. The age of acquisition was defined as 
the age at which at least 75% of the productions of the sound by an age group 
were correct in all positions tested. The age of mastery was defined as the age at 
which at least 90% of the productions of a sound by an age group were correct in 
all positions tested. Figure 4-44 illustrates the customary, acquisition, and mastery 
ages. The horizontal axis shows all the sounds tested, from lb I to /R/. The vertical 
axis shows the age groups which are represented here by decimal points, e.g., 4.5 
equals age 4:6 — 4:10, or Group 4:6. The lower end of each bar, represented by a 
solid square, is at the customary age for each sound; the upper end of each bar, 
represented by lighter shaded square, is at the mastery age. Within each bar a 
third symbol, darker shaded bar, falls at the age of acquisition. In some cases 
these ages occurred within the same group, resulting in less than three symbols on 
the bar. It should be noted that the bars that begin at the bottom line, 2, indicate 
that the sound was customary by the first testing and probably was customary 
before 2:0. 
Ibl-lpl 

The lb I sound was customary at 2:6, acquired at 3:0, and mastered at 3:6. 
The /p/ was customary somewhat earlier, before 2:0. In fact, /p/ was also acquired 
before 2:0 and mastered at 2:6. 
ZdMZ 

The /d/ sound was customary at 2:6, acquired at 3:0, and mastered at 6:0. 
The IM sound was customary and acquired before 2:0 and mastered at 3:0. 



110 



6.5 

6 
5.5 

5 
4.5 

0) 4 

55 3.5 i 

< 3 
2.5 

2 
1.5 - 

1 
0.5 



Ages of Acquisition 



1 



1 



J- EJ DC! 



a 



9 



I 



H l-r- 1- 



+-H 1 h^H h— f- 



+—\ 1— H h 



bpdtgkmniivfzs/3t/d3Ll rx 

Sound 



-m- CUSTOMARY -«- MASTERY -- ACQUISITION 



Figure 4-44. Customary, mastery, and acquisition ages of each consonant. 



Ill 

The /g/ sound was customary at 3:0, was acquired at 3:5, and was mastered 
at 4:0. The /k/ sound was customary, acquired and also mastered at the same age, 
3:0. 
/m/-/n/-/n/ 

The /m/ sound was customary and acquired before 2:0, and mastered at 
3:0. The /n/ was customary at 2:0, acquired at 2:5, and mastered at 6:0. The / U/ 
sound was customary and acquired at 2:0, and mastered at 4:6. 

bdzliL 

The /v/ sound was customary at 3:0, acquired at 3:6, and mastered at 4:6. 
The voiceless cognate /f/, one of the earliest sounds, was customary, acquired, and 
mastered at 2:0. 
/z/-/s/ 

The ItJ sound was customary at 3:6, and acquired and mastered at 6:0. The 
/s/ was customary at 3:6, acquired at 4:5, and mastered at 6:0. 

urn 

The /// sound was customary at 3:6, acquired at 4:0, and mastered at 5:0. 
The /j/ was customary at 4:5, acquired at 5:0, and mastered at 6:0. 
/tf/-/d 5 / 

The /t// was customary and acquired at 2:6 and mastered at 4:0. The /dj/ 
was customary at 4:0, acquired at 5:0, and mastered at 6:0. 



112 
/L/-/l/-/r/-/R/ 

The IU was customary at 3:0, acquired at 4:0, and mastered at 6:0. The /l/ 
was customary and acquired at 2:6 and mastered at 4:0. The /r/ was customary at 
4:0, acquired and mastered at 6:0. The /R/ was customary and acquired at 3:0 and 
mastered at 3:6. 

Reliability 

The independent transcriptions of one subject from each group were 
compared and analyzed for agreement using the reliability program included with 
the LIPP (Oiler & Delgado, 1990). This program compares the structure of the 
word and the consonants heard by each listener and yields a proportion of 
agreement based on weights assigned to different features. For example, 
disagreements as to the structure of a word are weighted twice as high as 
disagreements about the specific consonant. The individual agreement scores for 
the eight subjects ranged from .974 to .989 and averaged .982. This figure 
indicates a high level of agreement between the two listeners. 






113 



CHAPTER 5 
DISCUSSION 

The findings of this study will be discussed in several different ways. First, 
they will be compared to many of the studies of phonological acquisition reported 
in Chapter 2. Both factors that support and those that contradict earlier studies 
will be discussed. Second, the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the test 
instrument and procedures will be presented. Suggestions for further research in 
this field will be made, and finally, conclusions from this study will be drawn. 

Comparisons With Other Studies 
Percentages of Correct Production 

The general order of sound acquisition agreed with most reported studies 
of Portuguese (Lamprecht, 1993; Silverio et al., 1994; Wertzner, 1992; Yavas, 
1988), with the studies of English that were reviewed (Irwin & Wong, 1983; Khan 
& Lewis, 1986; Prather et al., 1975; Sander, 1972; Smit et al., 1990; Templin, 
1957), and with the one available study of Arabic (Al Amayreh, 1994). Stops 
(plosives) and nasals were generally produced correctly before fricatives, 
affricates, and liquids. Lamprecht (1993) and Yavas (1988) carried this ordering 
of acquisition further by indicating the following sequence: plosives/nasals > 
fricatives > liquids. One exception to their order was seen in the present study. 
With only minor exceptions (/r/ and /f/), the liquids were acquired before the 
fricatives, yielding: stops/nasals > liquids > fricatives. Within manners of 



114 
articulation, Lamprecht found: labials > dental/alveolars > palatals > velars. 

However, the present study supported this finding for fricatives and stops but not 

for nasals. These findings also agree with those of Yavas (1988), Ferguson and 

Farwell (1975), and Edwards (1979) in predicting that anterior fricatives would be 

acquired before posterior fricatives. Lamprecht's findings for liquids were well 

supported by the present study. In both studies /!/ was acquired before [LI, and /R/ 

was acquired before /r/. 

Hernandorena (1993) reported that the sounds /p/, l\J, /k/, /m/, and /n/ in 
Portuguese were produced correctly 85% of the time by her youngest group (2:0), 
and the /l/ was produced correctly 85% of the time by the 2:6 group. All of these 
findings were supported by the present study. 

It was difficult to compare the data from this study with the Portuguese 
data of Silverio et al. (1994) because of the different treatment of the criterion for 
acquisition. Silverio et al., in fact, were not concerned with acquisition, but with 
"occurrence" of a sound. Any sound produced correctly one time out of three 
possible productions was included in their lists. Even though the comparison was 
not perfect, the closest parallel in the present study would be the ages of 
customary usage. Silverio et al. listed the following sounds as "occurring" in 100% 
of the youngest group of children, aged 2:6 to 3:6: /m, n, p, b, d, k, g, f, v, t/, dj/. 
If customary ages from the present study are used, the list of those "customary" 
before 3:6 is almost identical with that of Silverio et al.: /m, p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, t/, 



115 
1, R/. The data from this study included the addition of /t/, /l/, and /R/ and the 

deletion of /dj/ from the list of Silverio's et al. 

As mentioned above, the present study agreed in many ways with that of 
Yavas (1988). However, Yavas found /m/ and /n/ to be acquired (75%) earlier 
than /HI. In this study /m/, In/, and /B/ were acquired by 2:0. 

Many of the studies reviewed have neglected to mention the effect of 
position on the accuracy of consonants. Lamprecht (1993), however, reported that 
word final /s/ and /r/ were produced correctly earlier than the same sounds in the 
syllable final position within words. The present study supported this finding for 
both /s/ and /r/. It might be hypothesized that the I si was used earlier at the ends 
of words because of its role in formation of the plural morpheme. No other word 
final I si singleton typically occurs in Portuguese. This hypothesis cannot be 
extended completely to the /r/, although it does occur in word final position in the 
infinitive form of verbs. However, it also occurs as a final consonant in other 
types of words and among the words used in this research, e.g., flor, agucar, trator, 
flower, sugar, and tractor. 

Little mention of the role of voicing has been made in other studies of 
Portuguese acquisition. Generally, it has been reported that in languages of the 
world, voiced consonants are acquired earlier in the word initial position, and 
voiceless consonants are acquired first in word final position (Ferguson & Farwell, 
1975; Stampe, 1969, 1973). However, the present study of Portuguese contradicts 
these predictions. All voiceless consonants regardless of position produced by 



116 
these children were acquired (75% correct) earlier than their respective voiced 

cognates. It is difficult to account for this major disagreement. Further study of 

this issue, possibly examining errors made on these sounds, is certainly warranted. 

Customary and Mastery Ages 

The ages of customary usage and of mastery in this study were compared 
with those of Sander (1972) for English and of Al Amayreh (1994) for Arabic. 
Although there were minor differences in definition, a comparison seemed to be 
warranted on sounds occurring in all three languages. Figures 5-1 and 5-2 present 
these ages graphically. In each case, the Portuguese data appear as the leftmost 
bar, followed by the Arabic data, and finally the English data. The lower end of 
each bar represents customary age; the upper end represents the age of mastery. 

The customary age of no consonant was earlier for Portuguese than for the 
other languages. However, the age of mastery was earlier for Portugese than for 
either of the other languages on all consonants except /d/, /m/ (earlier than 
Arabic), and ft/. These Portuguese speaking children began to produce many 
consonants later than those speaking the other two languages, but they often 
mastered the sounds earlier. 

Strengths. Weaknesses, and Limitations 

The test instrument used for collection of the data was already available 
and had been used for at least two previous studies. Its use allowed a more direct 
comparison of these data with those of the earlier studies. The test appeared to 
sample the sounds of the language adequately. All sounds were tested at least 



117 



js 



T3 
G 
c« 
t/i 
Q. 
O 



c 
o 

C/> 
'u- 

03 
Q. 

E 
o 

O 
to 

D) 

C 
LU 

O 
CD 





(0 



D) 

o 



^^^™ 



M 

C 

O 
CO 



«—— 



CD lO Tf CO c\i 

sa6v 



.!- 

G 

W 
•a 

G 

a 






60 



O 

- 



(/I 

a> 
u 

(A 

re 



G 

S 
o 

+■> 

(A 

3 
O 



G 
O 
to 

ha 

a. 

! 



— 

i 









118 



I 

(0 

u 



c 

O 
C/) 

'i_ 
03 
Q. 

E 
o 

O 

C/) 

D) 

C 

LU 

o 

• ■ ■ — 

05 



LT3 



O 
CO 



J3 

c 
W 

C 



X) 



3 
60 



O 

fl- 



re 
<u 

*■> 
(A 



S 



CD 
C/) 

CD 

3 
D) 

■i 

O 



N 



♦■■■^■^^■^ 



3 



siqioioioio^ioniow 
(O io -^ co c\i 



se6v 



i s 

8.2" 



(3 

o 

CO 

a 



-a 

a 



H 

« 



i 

«n 

I 

- 



119 
three times in each possible position, with the exception of a few low incidence 

sounds. However, this thoroughness can be seen as both an advantage and a 
disadvantage. Because of its length, the test would be most useful to the speech- 
language pathologist as a part of a diagnostic battery. It could not easily be used 
to screen the articulation/phonologic abilities of large populations. 

The presentation of the pictures in a simple theme format with many items 
in each picture probably elicited more spontaneous responses than a simple, 
picture-naming test would have. In addition, these words were not just nouns, but 
verbs, adjectives, greetings, and other word types. However, several words 
required the examiner to cue with a question (e.g., "What color is this grass?" or 
"Is this a big dragon or a small dragon?"), which was very time consuming with 
some children. An interesting aspect of the questioning was that often the 
children gave the opposite answer than was expected (e.g., saying that the dragon 
was small when the answer should have been big). In fact, such responses were a 
pleasant aid in establishing a good rapport with the children. 

The pictures were very much liked by the children. Some of them made up 
stories and were very creative. Usually the children seemed to enjoy the testing. 
However, the younger children, 2:0 to 3:6, often lost interest before the end of 
the session, requiring the examiner to use extra effort to keep them going until 
the end. 

The materials were very convenient and easy to manipulate. Only three 8 
inch by 11 inch laminated pictures were needed, together with the transcription 



120 
sheets and the tape recorder. Different transcription sheet than the ones 

suggested by Yavas et al. (1991) were used (Appendix A) to facilitate recording 

the responses. Another change made was the coloring of the pictures by the 

author to make them more interesting for the children. 

Suggestions for Further Research 

Three major suggestions for further research grew out of this study. 
Although the sample of children tested was quite large, 192, all of the children 
were from the same geographic area in Brazil. It would be useful to replicate this 
study with Portuguese speaking children from other areas. A second suggestion 
concerns the errors made by these normal children in producing the words. A 
further analysis of these errors would yield valuable information about the normal 
phonological acquisition process. The third suggestion is related to the second, 
but involves the validation of these data with children whose phonological 
development is not following a normal pattern for some reason. Would the results 
yielded from testing such children differ significantly and in what ways from the 
results of these normal children? 

Conclusions 

In summary, the results of this study can be restated to highlight the major 
conclusions about the normal acquisition of Portuguese. 
1. Some consonants appear to have been acquired even before the age of the 

youngest group, 2:0. 



121 

2. Nasals and stop consonants were produced correctly earlier than fricatives 

and liquids. However, most liquids were produced correctly earlier than 
most fricatives. 

3. The period of the greatest growth in accuracy of consonant production was 
between 2:0 and 2:6. 

4. By 4:0 most of the consonants were produced with at least 75% accuracy. 

5. There was a tendency among these children to produce voiceless 
consonants more accurately than their voiced cognates, even at the 
beginnings of words. 

6. The syllable-initial, within-word position was more accurate in the younger 
groups than syllable-initial, word-initial, reversing on most sounds at about 
3:0 or 3:6, and then showing no difference later. 

7. Early sounds (those acquired before the age of 3:0) included: /p/, /t/, /k/, 
/m/, /n/,/n7, /f/,/t//, and/1/. 

8. Intermediate sounds (those acquired between 3:0 and 4:0) included: /b/, /d/, 
/g/, /v/, and /R/. 

9. Late sounds (those acquired at 4:0 or later) included: M, /s/, ///, lt.1, /d /, 
and /r/. 

10. There was essentially no difference between girls and boys in ages of 
acquisition. 



APPENDIX A 
STIMULUS PICTURES 







122 












123 




124 




125 




126 




APPENDIX B 
TRANSCRIPTION SHEET 





ZOO 


F or M - Group 


borboleta 


borboleta 




1 


cachorro 


k a / o R u 




2 


cobra 


k o b r a 




3 


comer 


komer(komendu) 




4 


dois 


dois 




5 


dragao 


d r a g a w 




6 


flor 


flor 




7 


floresta 


f 1 o r e s t a 




8 


grama 


g r a m a 




9 


grande 


g r A d i 




10 


latir 


1 a t i r (1 a t/ i n d u) 




11 


olhar 


oLar(oLAndu) 




12 


passarinho 


p a s a r i TI u 




13 


pedra 


pedra 




14 


peixe 


pej/ 




15 


pular 


pular (p u 1 a ndu) 




16 


rabo 


R a b u 




17 


sol 


s w 




18 


tigre 


t/gri 




19 


verde 


v e r d i 




20 


zebra 


zebra 




21 


zoologico 


z o o 1 i k u 




22 


orelha 


o r e L a 




23 


voar 


v u a r (v u a ndu) 




24 



127 






128 





KITCHEN 


F or M - Group 


abacaxi 


a b a k a / i 




1 


acucar 


a s u k a r 




2 


cafe 


kafe 




3 


estrela 


i s t r e 1 a 




4 


feijao 


f e j a w 




5 


fogao 


f o g A w 




6 


frio 


f r i w 




7 


fruta 


fruta 




8 


garrafa 


g a R a f a 




9 


geladeira 


e 1 a d e j r a 




10 


janela 


a n e 1 a 




11 


prato 


p r a t u 




12 


soprar 


soprar 




13 


vela 


vela 




14 


vidro 


v i d r u 




15 


banana 


ban Ana 




16 


bolo 


b o I u 




17 


fogo 


fogu 




18 


ovo 


O V u 




19 


tampa 


t A p a 




20 






129 





LIVING ROOM 


F or M - Group 


brinquedo 


brikedu 




1 


cruz 


k r u s 




2 


dinheiro 


d I n e j r u 




3 


disco 


d i s k u 




4 


globo 


g 1 o b u 




5 


guarda- 
chuva 


gwarda/uva 




6 


igreja 


i g r e a 




7 


jornal 


o r n a w 




8 


lapis 


laps 




9 


livro 


1 i v r u 




10 


martelo 


martdu 




11 


mesa 


m e z a 




12 


palhago 


p a L a s u 




13 


planta 


p 1 A t a 




14 


prego 


p regu 




15 


quadro 


kwadru 




16 


radio 


R a d u 




17 


tapete 


t a p e t/ i 




18 


televisao 


t e 1 e v i z a w 




19 


tesoura 


t/ i z o r a 




20 


antena 


K t e n a 




21 


botao 


b o t A w 




22 


estante 


i s t 7C tf i 




23 


franja 


fr-R a 




24 


poltrona 


poltrona 




25 


telhado 


t e L a d u 




26 






130 





BATHROOM 


F or M - Group 


banquinho 


b a k I B u 




1 


blusa 


b 1 u z a 




2 


bolso 


bowsu 




3 


brago 


b r a s u 




4 


cal$a 


k a w s a 




5 


camisa 


k a m i z a 




6 


chave 


/ a v i 




7 


chinelo 


/ i n e 1 u 




8 


dedo 


d e d u 




9 


dente 


d e j t/ i 




10 


escovar 


iskovar(iskov a ndu) 




11 


nariz 


naris 




12 


pescogo 


p e s k o s u 




13 


relogio 


R e 1 i w 




14 


sabonete 


s a b o n e t/ i 




15 


toalha 


t u a L a 




16 


esperar 


isperar(isper a ndu) 




17 


armdrio 


a r m a r i o 




18 


azulejos 


a zu I e os 




19 


cabelo 


k a b e I u 




20 


cano 


k a n u 




21 


espeiho 


i s p e L u 




22 


menino 


m e ninu 




23 


perna 


perna 




24 


porta 


porta 




25 


saia 


saia 




26 


sapato 


s a p a t u 




27 



131 





VEHICLES 


F or M - Group 


andar 


Andar(AndAndu) 




1 


bicicleta 


b i s i k 1 e t a 




2 


brincar 


brikar(brik a ndu) 




3 


carro 


k a R u 




4 


criancas 


k r i a s a s 




5 


dizer 


d izer(d izendu) 




6 


dirigir 


diri ir(d iri Tndu) 




7 


estrada 


i s t r a d a 




8 


f rente 


f r e j t/ i 




9 


fumaca 


f u m a s a 




10 


microfone 


m i k r o f o n i 




11 


nadar 


nadar (n ad a ndu) 




12 


nuvem 


n u v e j 




13 


placa 


p 1 a k a 




14 


tia/tio 


t/ i a / 1/ u 




15 


tocar 


t o k a r (t o k a ndu) 




16 


trator 


trator 




17 


trem 


tr e" j 




18 


ancora 


a n k o r a 




19 


chamine 


famine 




20 


navio 


n a v i w 




21 


roda 


R da 




22 


trilho 


t r i Lu 




23 


sino 


s i n u 




24 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 
Celia R. Salviano Santini was born on November, 22, 1960, in Brazil. She 
was married in 1985 and now has a young son. She worked as a speech therapist 
for the last 12 years. In 1979, she joined the Pontificia Universidade Catolica in 
Sao Paulo, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in speech-language pathology in 
1982. She enrolled in a two year specialization course at CEFAC in 1983, and 
after receiving her diploma, she started teaching at that center. After entering the 
graduate program at the Pontificia Universidade Catolica in 1987, Department of 
Communication Disorders, she was appointed as a teaching and research assistant 
in the same department. Celia received her Master of Science in October, 1989. 
In August of 1991, she enrolled in the graduate program at the University of 
Florida, Department of Communication Processes and Disorders. Her Ph.D. in 
communication disorders should be awarded in December, 1995. 



136 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to 
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and 
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

lIL^ 7' Aff/i**^ 

Alice T. Dyson, Chair 
Associate Professor of Communication 
Processes and Disorders 

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to 
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and 
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of-Philosor 

jnda J. Ljinnbardino, Cochair 
Professor of Communication Processes 
and Disorders 

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to 
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and 
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosopl 



il 




Howard B. Rothman 
Professor of Communication Processes 
and Disorders 

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to 
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and 
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

Christine M. Sapienza 
Assistant Professor of Communication 
Processes and Disorders 

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to 
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and 
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



Charles A. Perrone 
Associate Professor of Romance 
Languages and Literatures 



This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department 
of Communication Processes and Disorders in the College of Liberal Arts and 
Sciences and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of 
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

December 1995 



Dean, Graduate School 









LD 

1780 

1995 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 08555 3211